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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Special Issue "Geospatiality and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

1. Dr. Gaurav Sikka
Secretary-General and Treasurer, IGU Task Force for Young and Early Career Geographers
Assistant Professor, University Department of Geography, L.N. Mithila University, Bihar
 
2. Dr. Komali Yenneti
Chair, IGU Task Force for Young and Early Career Geographers
New Generation Network Scholar, Australia India Institute
School of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
 
3. Prof. R.B. Singh
Secretary-General and Treasurer, IGU
Professor, Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi
 
4. Prof. Vladimir Tikunov
The head of Integrated Mapping laboratory, Professor, Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University

Vol 14, No 1 (2021)
View or download the full issue PDF

Special Issue "Geospatiality and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)" 

6-8 135
Abstract

The rapid human development and the conflicts between society, economy and environment has greatly hindered the implementation of sustainable development strategy. The ‘2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provides a universal framework for addressing the issues identified in previous development agendas and achieving policy goals in social, economic and environmental spheres. However, the governments and decision-makers across the world have been facing challenges related to monitoring and assessing the progress of SDGs. The use of geospatial science and spatial data architectures can address these challenges and support holistic monitoring and evaluation of SDGs. This editorial paper discusses the role of geospatial science in implementation of SDGs by drawing on the scholarly works published in the special issue titled ‘Geospatiality and Sustainable Development Goals’. The issue provided a platform for research publications by young and early career geographers from across the world. Several papers in the issue were drawn from different IGU conference sessions organised by the IGU-Task Force for Young and Early Career Geographers (IGU-YECG) since from its establishment (Beijing, 2016) to the upcoming 34th IGC at Istanbul (2021). By bringing the debates on SDGs to the forefront explicitly, this editorial paper reinstates interest in the topic.

9-16 146
Abstract

The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between two of the Sustainable Development Goals (UN Agenda 2030) – Good health and well-being (SDG 3) and Clean water and sanitation (SDG 6) – and the statistics of the COVID-19 pandemic (number of cases and deaths) in Brazilian cities. To analyze this relationship, we used secondary data from public organizations on the SDG panorama by city and conducted a moderated regression analysis. The sample was composed of 649 cities with a population exceeding 50 thousand inhabitants. The results show that the higher were the indicators used to measure SDGs, the lower was the number of cases and deaths from the disease. We have also proved that cities’ population density and their distance from the pandemic epicenter moderate this relationship, since a higher level of these moderation variables increases the impact of a lower level of SDGs 3 and 6 coverage in society on the number of cases and deaths from COVID-19. Thus, the efficient and effective investment to reach SDGs 3 and 6 is directly associated with cities’ ability to successfully deal with infectious diseases and the resulting number of deaths. As for its contribution, this research innovates by establishing a model for analyzing the impact of compliance with SDGs on cities’ performance in their fight against COVID-19, which may also suit other nations.

17-24 157
Abstract

The present study analyses the case of urban sustainability in Mumbai in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and aims to identify the relationship between the existing sustainability issues and the spread of the pandemic across the administrative wards of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. It also tries to delve into the reasons behind the observed relationships to establish the patterns created by the COVID-19 pandemic in Mumbai by the end of August 2020. The study relies on secondary sources of data, that include reports published by government agencies, news articles, journals and websites. The study comprises a large amount of quantitative data that were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.4.1 and SPSS 23. The qualitative data collected through an extensive literature review was used alongside the quantitative data to support the study. The findings reveal that the COVID-19 pandemic had a varied impact across the wards of Mumbai, which was found to be associated with the unequal socio-economic conditions that prevail across the city. This inequality has contributed to Mumbai’s reduced resilience, for building which the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have to be achieved.

25-32 140
Abstract

In the paper, the least resource base required to ensure isolated human habitat sustainability over a historically long period of time is discussed. Territory and energy are proposed as such basic resources. The analysis of isolated societies of Tasmania, the Chatham Islands, and North Sentinel Island concludes that habitat can exist long and sustainably in a local area of at least 30 square kilometres in a mode of inherent safety, without the use of artificial technologies. This conclusion demonstrates the possibility of sustainable development of human civilization as a sum of local communities in the context of the isolationism paradigm, an alternative to globalism’s currently dominant concept. The significance of identifying the least resource base of sustainable development of isolated communities in the context of the establishment of scientific bases and settlements in remote areas of the globe, on the Moon and other planets of the solar system, and developing strategies to combat pandemics such as COVID-19, is highlighted.

33-40 100
Abstract

Food insecurity is a global issue that persists at various scales and intensity. It is linked to irregularity or uncertainty of food, water and fuel and can develop under the influence of multiple factors. Food availability, accessibility, consumption and stability are the four broad dimensions of food security. This paper analyses the relationship between these four dimensions and food insecurity for 33 districts in Rajasthan, India, using the data collected from the published documents, periodicals and websites of the government or other authentic sources. To analyse the link between these four dimensions, several indicators were taken into consideration. The collected data was used to rank the districts based on their level of food insecurity. Thus, the results include categorization of the districts into four zones based on the values of the variables. The results are presented through maps, which show the spatial distribution of food insecurity. It can be concluded, that the districts of Banswara, Dungarpur, Udaipur, Bharatpur, Rajsamand, Dhaulpur and Jalore have a very high level of food insecurity.

53-62 239
Abstract

The effective implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to forests (SDG15) and water resources (SDG6) have significant implications for achieving quality of life for people in urban and rural areas. We carried out a study in the rural parishes of the Metropolitan District of Quito (MDQ), Ecuador. The objective of the study was to assess how biophysical factors, institutional capacity and institutional complexity influence the perceived effectiveness of forest and water management. Ordinal logistic regressions were applied and spatial lag regressions were also calculated to assess the possible spatial correlation of the dependent variables. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analyses (Gi* and Anselin Local Moran´s I) were applied to assess the perceived effectiveness. The regressions results show that the number of stakeholders involved in the management of each resource, used as a proxy for institutional complexity, was a significant variable (p-value = 0.003 for forest resource management and p-value = 0.027 for water resource management) when explaining perceived effectiveness. The spatial autocorrelation results show spatial hotspots (90% and 99% confidence) and a cluster (95 % confidence) of forest management effectiveness as well as some spatial outliers (95% confidence) of water and forest management effectiveness. These findings were put in context to assess the current institutional arrangements used by local actors to implement SDGs 6 and 15. The results obtained may be useful for improving local public policies that seek integrated implementation for SDGs 6 and 15, while the applied methods can be transferred to the study of other SDGs.

63-70 99
Abstract

The cross-border region of Mexico and Guatemala is part of the continuum in the aspects of relief, climate, hydrography, geology, land cover and land use of Mesoamerica, one of the most biologically diverse regions on the planet. Historically, the region has been continuously affected by meteorological phenomena, such as mass movement in the highland and floods in the lowland, which affected cities, communities and production activities year after year and led to the loss and deterioration of the ecosystems. To handle this problem, a proposal for environmental planning is suggested. The final objective is to provide key information that concerns the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals, particularly related to the protection and restoration of forest areas. In this study, spatial analysis and modeling were applied to map homogeneous units for environmental planning in the Mexico-Guatemala trans-border region. Additionally, forest area as a proportion of the total land area, its share inside the natural protected areas and distribution by ecosystem type were calculated for 2010 and 2019. From the data analysis it was found that the total forest area in the region has decreased from 47% in 2010 to 43 % in 2019; 27% and 25% of the total area, respectively, correspond to forests within the natural protected areas. The principal ecosystem type in the Natural Protected Areas corresponds to tropical forest. Two conclusions can be drawn, that agroforestry zoning is an important tool to monitor forest areas in the context of achieving Sustainable Development Goals and that the natural protected areas play a fundamental role in the preservation of the forest in the region.

71-80 152
Abstract

The study aims to measure the greenness of an Indonesia city using tree canopy cover data. Rapid physical development brings impacts to the loss of urban trees, which leads to the increase of flooding risk, local temperature and pollution level. To address the issues, a baseline assessment of urban tree canopy existence is necessary as inputs for effective urban environmental management policies. The methods used in this research include 1) remote sensing and spatial analysis, and 2) simple quantitative analysis. Furthermore, three indicators are used in assessing the greenness, including 1) size of the canopy, 2) canopy cover percentage, and 3) canopy per capita. The results found that the city of Yogyakarta has a low level of greenness based on the canopy size in which covers only 467.37 ha or 14.38% of the total area. The second finding is Yogyakarta has an unequal distribution of canopy cover percentage in each district (kecamatan). The third finding is Yogyakarta City has a canopy per capita rate of 10.93 sq m/person. This number is below the UN recommendation of 15sq m / person. It indicates that residents have poor access to urban greenery. Additionally, the article discusses that the three indicators used have strength and weakness in measuring the level of greenness. Therefore, the assessment objectives must be taken into account. We recommend the use of each indicator as follows: 1) the canopy size is used as an initial inventory of the existence and distribution of the canopy, 2) the canopy cover percentage canopy percentage for measuring and comparing the level of greenness spatially and visually between areas, 3) the canopy per capita is used to measure the possibility of access and interaction of residents with the presence of a tree canopy. Cities’ authority can use the information to measure the achievement of SDGs number 11, 13, or 15.

81-90 89
Abstract

Inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities are included in Sustainable development Goals. The choice between environmental and social well-being is a very acute issue. It is necessary to take into account the interaction of three city dimensions: economic, ecological and social. The aim of the paper is to evaluate externalities in terms of population for 114 Russian cities all over the country considering all three dimensions.

The methods are the analysis of statistical data by econometric methods and their processing including geographical visualization. The data was taken from the Federal State Statistics Service database. The main results are the followings. The methodology for evaluation of externalities and estimation a hypothetical «efficient city size» in terms of population for Russian cities has been elaborated. The access to high-paying jobs and the availability of social benefits is often associated with living or moving to cities or regions with an unfavorable environment. Some cities feature an extremely high growth rate, dense population and often a low level of management and economic development.

Then there was demonstrated how to achieve a hypothetical «efficient city size» by means of environmental management and changes in city area. This should be helpful in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (especially the Goal 11) and some targets mentioned in the «New Urban Agenda». It is essential to pay attention to the function of a city and its spatial organization. Some other measures to rise efficiency were proposed as well.

91-105 105
Abstract

The diversion and recovery of organic waste are one of the most significant opportunities and challenges for reducing the environmental impacts of waste disposal internationally, as recognised by the United Nations’ SDG 12 that seeks to “ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns”. This issue is particularly pertinent to developed countries, like Australia, who have a high propensity for waste removal arising from their industrial and domestic use of products, materials and organic consumables. Through the use of GIS technology, using modelling software developed by the Global Methane Initiative, a series of simulations were undertaken to determine the viability of an anaerobic digester for the City of Greater Geelong (COGG), located in the State of Victoria (Australia), where organic materials constitute over 25% of all waste land-filled. Using only municipal organic waste, the modelling concluded that the COGG would generate between AU$6M-AU$11M/annum from the sale of biogas/methane. In addition to this revenue stream, COGG would have an Annual Projected Net Emissions Reductions of 3797 Mt. This paper further considers the development of a geospatial database to identify and locate concentrated organic waste resources in COGG, the design and development of a software tool to help quantify the production of food waste, and the development of an economic model to value the organic waste stream of COGG arising from the implementation of this proposal.

106-121 413
Abstract

In view of the vital significance of water resources and issues emerging from their temporal and spatial distribution and utilization posing serious problems to the land resources and to the society United Nations has identified sustainable management of water resources (SDG 6) as one of the seventeen major Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this perspective, the purpose of the study is to identify the groundwater potential zones in the hard rock terrain of Betul-Chhindwara Region, Madhya Pradesh, India, using AHP technique. The study area comprises the sub-watersheds of Tawa river (Narmada basin), Tapi river (Tapi basin), Kanhan and Pench rivers (Godavari basin). Various thematic layers such as geomorphology, geology, physiography, rainfall, soil, slope, lineament, drainage density, groundwater depth, and land use/ land cover were developed. The analytical hierarchy process helps to delineate groundwater prospect zones, which are categorized into five classes, i.e. very poor, poor, moderate, good, and very good based on objective, criteria, and preference. The good, moderate, and poor groundwater potential zones cover 4815 sq. km., 6423 sq. km, and 4857 sq. km, respectively, comprising 22.46%, 29.96%, and 22.65% of the entire region under study. The result indicates that 15.22% of the area comprising 3262.10 sq. km have very good groundwater potential whereas 9.71% (2080 sq. km) has very poor groundwater potential. The obtained result has been verified through field check based on the yield data collected from 16 bore wells in the study area. The accuracy of the results was 75% that proves the efficiency of the adopted techniques. Thus, this study will be efficient for the sustainable development and management of groundwater in the study area.

122-131 499
Abstract

India’s intended nationally determined contribution emission which is safe, smart and sustainable green transportation network. Azadpur Mandi which is known for the biggest selling place of fruits and vegetable in Delhi is becoming a place of very heavy traffic area zone. People who are living nearby and the people coming to Azadpur Mandi facing a lot of traffic and also because of no proper direction hinted there people are not able to reach their destination on time. This paper assesses urban traffic congestions and its impact on the daily life of stakeholders and also advocates some possible solutions. In this research found results the number of vehicles has increased in the last ten to fifteen years. The total number of categorised vehicle has also increased. Azadpur Mandi has impacted the land value of the surroundings. The road infrastructure is not sufficient to cater to the traffic volume of this area. The number of lanes in this area is less. This paper outlines the problems of traffic congestion in Asia’s largest sabji (Vegetable) Mandi by using statistical tools. There are very few parking lots inside and outside of the Mandi. This paper investigates the goal 11 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Goal 11 says to make cities safe, resilience, sustainable. According to the Delhi Traffic police, Azadpur is one of the most accident-prone hotspots of Delhi.

132-141 68
Abstract

United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5 advocates for the promotion of gender equality. It ensures women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in politics. Females have a right to vote in elections, be elected to government office, serve on boards, and make their voices heard in any process that will ultimately affect them, their families, and their communities. Investing women’s right to political participation is a necessary step to achieve global gender equality and democratic governance.

The paper aims to analyze the spatio- temporal participation of women in assembly elections of 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Patna District, to find out association between women’s literacy levels and voting among women in the study area, and to identify motivational and situational constraints of women’s participation in electoral process. For the present study, Patna district has been selected as the study area. The author adopted questionnaire survey and key informant interviews as a means for data collection. The growing participation of women in elections indicates a silent movement of women empowerment. It is found that there is a rising trend in the voting participation of women in the study area. Both literate and illiterate groups are conscious about their voting rights.

REGULAR ISSUE 

142-151 109
Abstract

Urban growth is often accompanied by significant environmental changes, which include modification of the natural landscape and the problems related to it, such as real estate speculation, marginalization of the population, landslide risks, flooding, as well as pressure on environmentally protected areas. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how will new urban development affect the already modified space without generating further environmental problems. The research aimed to analyse five projects of allotments in Governador Valadares/Brazil between 2015 and 2017. Besides the information on the projects themselves, geographic information systems (GIS) were used along with laws and bibliography. The biggest obstacle observed was the lack of standardization in the process required by the City Hall, which culminated in projects with different characteristics, including those that did not present important analyzes, such as the Civil Construction Waste Management Plan. It is necessary to move forward in discussions related to urban environmental sustainability, standardizing the possible actions, not only in the municipality of Governador Valadares.

41-52 252
Abstract

Change of land use and land cover (LULC) has been a key issue of natural resource conservation policies and environmental monitoring. In this study, we used multi-temporal remote sensing data and spatial analysis to assess the land cover changes in Fateh Jhang, Attock District, Pakistan. Landsat 7 (ETM+) for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010 and Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS) for the year 2015 were classified using the maximum likelihood algorithms into built-up area, barren land, vegetation and water area. Post-classification methods of change detection were then used to assess the variation that took place over the study period. It was found that the area of vegetation has decreased by about 176.19 sq. km from 2000 to 2015 as it was converted to other land cover types. The built-up area has increased by 5.75%. The Overall Accuracy and Kappa coefficient were estimated at 0.92 and 0.77, 0.92 and 0.78, 0.90 and 0.76, 0.92 and 0.74, for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, respectively. It turned out that economic development, climate change and population growth are the main driving forces behind the change. Future research will examine the effects of changing land use types on Land Surface Temperature (LST) over a given time period.

152-160 51
Abstract

Sustainable development in Russia requires work to be done in a number of areas. One of the mechanisms for solving internal problems is to decrease the gaps in the level of socioeconomic development between the country’s regions. This article provides an overview of the current state of the internal disparities in the socioeconomic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation that include cities with a population of over one million.

The constituent entities of the Russian Federation were analyzed in terms of the concentration of their population in the administrative centres. The population concentration ratio for cities of over one million inhabitants and the population polycentricity ratio for the corresponding entities were calculated. The ranking of entities was carried out based on these indicators. An analysis of the “contributions” of cities and peripheral areas to the formation of the gross regional product of the studied entities of the Russian Federation was carried out. The economic concentration ratios of cities with over one million inhabitants were calculated. The relationship of this indicator with the population ratio was established. Based on this, the following categories were identified: entities that are not in danger of a population or economy hyper-concentration in the administrative centre; entities with moderate population concentration in the city of more than one million inhabitants combined with an upward trend in their economic concentration; and entities with a high concentration of the population and economy in the administrative centre and signs of decrease in the population and economic concentration.

161-170 96
Abstract

Banana production is the mainstay industry for majority of small holder farmers living in the mountain regions of Kenya. These regions are affected by climate-related impacts at all levels of the value chain. This paper therefore discusses climate trends, related impacts, and adaptations in banana value chain in Mt. Kenya region for the period between 1980 and 2017. The study locations were purposively selected from Mt. Kenya region to include both Imenti South and Mukurweini sub-counties. A sample of 381 respondents was selected using simple random sampling. Triangulation research design was used to guide the study by integrating both qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Historical document analysis was used to examine climatic data (temperature and rainfall) from the Kenya Meteorological Department, Nairobi. Results showed that rainfall and temperature have changed during the study period. Temperature trends in Mukurweini showed R2 = 0.3314 while in Imenti South R2 =0.3441 with an overall annual increase in temperature in Mukurweini by 0.02°C while in Imenti South we registered an increase by 0.016°C for the study period. Mukurweini sub-county rainfall trend line had R2 =-0.1064 while Imenti South sub-county had R2 =-0.1014. Adverse effects of climate variability on banana value chain included low yields in both Mukurweini (79.2%) and Imenti South (60.2%) sub-counties. Farmers in the study area preferred irrigation (57.2%) followed by crop diversification (13.9%) as adaptive strategies to climate variability.

171-176 126
Abstract

This work focuses on the creation and use of associations of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. Bioremediation of soils with the help of mixed cultural and associations of microorganisms provides wider adaptive possibilities than individual species. This is especially important in conditions of short northern summer. The results of field experiments showed that microbial associations based on indigenous microorganisms (bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida, P. baetica, Microbacterium paraoxydans and fungi Penicillium commune, P. canescens st. 1, P. simplicissimum st. 1) with mineral fertilizers reduced the content of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the Hortic Arthrosol soil of the Kola Peninsula by 82% over 120 days. Also, the microbial associations with mineral fertilizers had a positive effect on the physical properties of the soil, increasing its humidity. The bacterial-fungi associations changed the number, abundance and structure of the indigenous community of microorganisms. Penicillium canescens, which was included in the composition of fungi association, became dominant. During the rapid decomposition of hydrocarbons are released to the soil toxic intermediates or metabolites of the microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon oxidizing microfungi suppressed the germination of test plant seeds to one degree or another. Penicillium commune fungal metabolites inhibited seed germination only by 29% for Lepidium sativum L. and 24% for Triticum aestivum L. This species can be used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

177-184 82
Abstract

Oil spill phenomena in the ocean possess a very serious threat to ocean health. On the ocean surface, oil slicks immediately start to spread and mostly end up in the ecosystem. Furthermore, it could threaten the organisms living in the ocean or impact nearby coastal area. The aim of this research was to investigate the trajectories of oil spill based on a real accident in the Java Sea. Tracking oil spills using satellite images is an efficient method that provides valuable information about trajectories, locations and the spread intensity. The objective of this study was to periodically track the trajectory of the oil spill from the Karawang incident using Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. Pre-processing of the images consisted of radiometric and geometric corrections. After the corrections, SAR images were mapped and plotted accordingly. To understand the oil spill trajectories in relation to the oceanic processes, the ocean current pattern map and surface wind roses were also analysed. The processed images from July to October 2019 show a trajectory dominated by the oil spill layers movement towards the west to northwest from the original location along with a decrease in the detected oil spill area over time. The identified trajectories of the oil spill followed the ocean current pattern and surface winds. Thus, these two parameters were considered to be the main factors responsible for the oil spill drift.

185-195 158
Abstract

Reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is an internationally accepted mechanism for encouraging developing countries to contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) by preventing forest loss and degradation; and by increasing removal of GHGs from the earth’s atmosphere through the conservation, management and expansion of forests. This mechanism, however, has failed to bring the desired results in the Bale Eco-Region. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the main challenges of forest governance in addressing the implementation of REDD+ projects. Mixed research approach was employed. Relevant qualitative data were gathered through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires. This study revealed that the community produced a total of 5.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in three years (between 2012 and 2015) as a contribution to the global environment. But, they were not received any economic incentives from the REDD+. Generally, while implementing the REDD+ project, forest governance of the Bale Eco-Region has faced different challenges, such as weak institutional arrangements, continuation of deforestation, low enforcement capacity, low economic benefit of the community, lack of strong coordination with media and research institutes, conflict of interest among sectors over forest land, and lack of adequate budget and logistics to undertake proper monitoring and evaluation. All these challenges have in one way or another contributed to the failure of the REDD+ project in the Bale Eco-Region.

196-208 67
Abstract

The study concerned the analysis of temporal and spatial variability of floods in the Republic of Armenia (RA). While there are number of reports on flood formation of rivers in RA, the literature lacks results on using nonparametric test results to analyze this disastrous phenomenon. For that purpose, the dynamics of changes in extreme maximum instantaneous runoff, as well as air temperature and precipitation database was evaluated and compared between 1960–2012 for 27 hydrometrical observational and 35 meteorological stations in RA. The Mann-Kendall test with consideration of the autocorrelation function was employed as a non-parametric testto identify any present trends. An increasing tendency of air temperature, decreasing tendency of the atmospheric precipitation and extreme maximum instantaneous river runoff were identified in the studied river-basins. As expected, the warming climate contributed to a gradual melting of accumulated snow in the river-basins in winter, resulting in changes in the extreme maximum instantaneous runoff of the rivers in spring, which significantly reduces the risk of the flood occurrence. Thus, it can be claimed that almost all the river basins of Armenia have a tendency to reduce the risk of floods due to global climate change.

209-218 85
Abstract

Insufficient rainfall results in water shortage and eventually leads to drought. This research has investigated drought by utilizing standardize precipitation index in monthly mean rainfall data for 30 years from 1988 to 2017 in Rajshahi division, a region in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. Estimated indices have identified that the years 1992, 1994, 2006, and 2012 experienced moderate to severe droughts, and the year 2010 suffered from extreme drought. Non-parametric and linear trend analyses have shown that the number of draughts in the study area has been growing. The study area is thus judged as moving forward to experience more droughts from lack of water due to rainfall deficit, especially during monsoon. This region has already started to experience a shortage of rainwater, approximately 18%, in the monsoon season. This shortage is likely to affect the volume of surface water and thus the groundwater recharging, which would distort irrigation for agriculture in the region. This work would therefore assist in policy-making addressing the watering system of the region to ensure smooth agricultural production.

219-233 85
Abstract

For the first time, the wet deposition and washout rates of soluble forms of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were estimated in rains during the spring AeroRadCity experiment in Moscow. Rains are an important factor in reducing atmospheric pollution with PTEs in Moscow. Due to the resuspension of contaminated particles of road dust and urban soils, industrial and traffic impact, waste and biomass burning, rainwater is highly enriched in Sb, Pb, Se, Cd, and S, and less enriched in P, Ba, As, W, Mn, Sn, Na, Co, Ni, and Be. Significant wet deposition (μg/m2 per event) and washout rates (μg/m2 per hour) of PTEs were revealed during the public holidays in May which corresponded to the elevated aerosol content due to predominant air advection from southern and south-western regions in this period. During continuous rains, the level of PTEs wet deposition sharply decreases on the second and subsequent days due to the active below-cloud washout of aerosols during the initial precipitation events. We show that the length of the dry period and aerosol content before the onset of rain determines the amount of solid particles in rainwater, which leads to an increase in rainwater pH, and strongly affects wet deposition and washout rates of PTEs of mainly anthropogenic origin (W, Zn, Bi, Cd, Sb, Ni, B, S, K, and Cu). At the same time rainfall intensity contributes to an increase in wet deposition and washout rates of Se, As, B, Cu, Sb, S, Cd, Ba, Rb, and K. The obtained results provide a better understanding of atmospheric deposition processes and can be useful in assessing the urban environmental quality.

234-240 75
Abstract

The study analyses daily activities of youth in the virtual and actual environment within the framework of theoretical and applied achievements of time geography. The role of mobile devices in youth life, transformation of traditional activity and changes in the daily organization of actions due to digitalization are discussed. Empirical data for the research were obtained via a diary method (the respondents were 18–22-year-old students). Features of individual daily foreground and background activities, digital devices used, activities relation and localization are evaluated by geovisualization performed within the time-geographical concepts. Regardless of the smartphonization, individuals reserve time spans not associated with virtual activities; their online activities are localized within places of residence, study and traffic routes, while public spaces serve as “live communication” platforms (but a complete rejection of virtual activity does not occur here). An attempt to compare youth daily activity under ordinary conditions and during the period of forced isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic is being made.

241-250 54
Abstract

Despite the achieved success in the fight against tuberculosis, the disease remains an immediate problem for a number of countries including Russia. To a large extent, the reasons for the high incidence and mortality of the population are not only medical but also social in nature, which leads to the emergence of geographical patterns in the spread of the disease. The purpose of the study is to identify the spatio-temporal conditions that shape the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Russia at both the national and regional levels. Using GIS technologies, an analysis of the current spread of the infection in the Russian Federation was carried out based on data for the period from 2006 through 2017. Typological classification of regions according to the dynamics and magnitude of the incidence rate has been developed. Based on the cartographic analysis that was carried out, regions with the most unfavorable tuberculosis situation in the Russian Federation were identified for a more detailed study at the municipal level.

251-262 67
Abstract

The study continues a series of observations started in the late 1950s, aimed at inferring changes in the Lake Ladoga ecosystem state recorded in the surface-sediment diatom assemblages. At the pre-anthropogenic stage (prior to the 1960s), the composition of the surface-sediment diatom assemblages indicated an oligotrophic state of Lake Ladoga. With the increased P load to the lake (late 1960s–1980s), the transition to a mesotrophic state was recorded via increased proportions of eutrophic species and decreased abundances of the taxa typical of the pre-anthropogenic stage. In the early 1990s, the composition of the surface-sediment diatom assemblages still indicated a mesotrophic state despite a decreased external P load. At the present de-eutrophication stage of Lake Ladoga (the 2000s), the abundances of eutrophic taxa steadily decrease while some taxa typical of the pre-anthropogenic period return to their dominating position in the surface-sediment diatom assemblages. However, despite the decreased P concentrations, the Lake Ladoga ecosystem has not returned to its pre-anthropogenic state as indicated by the present-day composition of the surface-sediment diatom assemblages. This suggests a delayed ecosystem response to the decreased anthropogenic pressure, and possibly some irreversible changes resulting from the eutrophication. At present, de-eutrophication processes and ecosystem recovery are superimposed upon the recent climatic changes that govern the onset and duration of the vegetative seasons for the phytoplankton communities in Lake Ladoga. The diatom-inferred changes in the ecological state of Lake Ladoga are in agreement with the results of longterm hydrochemical and hydrobiological studies.



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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)