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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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RESEARCH PAPERS 

56
Abstract

 As the COVID-19 outbreak spread worldwide, multidisciplinary researches on COVID-19 are vastly developed, not merely focusing on the medical sciences like epidemiology and virology. One of the studies that have developed is to understand the spread of the disease. This study aims to assess the contribution of crowdsourcing-based data from social media in understanding locations and the distribution patterns of COVID-19 in Indonesia. In this study, Twitter was used as the main source to retrieve location-based active cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia. We used Netlytic (www.netlytic.org) and Phyton’s script namely GetOldTweets3 to retrieve the relevant online content about COVID-19 cases including audiences’ information such as username, time of publication, and locations from January 2020 to August 2020 when COVID-19 active cases significantly increased in Indonesia. Subsequently, the accuracy of resulted data and visualization maps was assessed by comparing the results with the official data from the Ministry of Health of Indonesia. The results show that the number of active cases and locations are only promising during the early period of the disease spread on March – April 2020, while in the subsequent periods from April to August 2020, the error was continuously exaggerated. Although the accuracy of crowdsourcing data remains a challenge, we argue that crowdsourcing platforms can be a potential data source for an early assessment of the disease spread especially for countries lacking the capital and technical knowledge to build a systematic data structure to monitor the disease spread.

55
Abstract

The relationship between the dynamics of the atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions has been analyzed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Moscow in spring, 2020. The decrease in traffic emissions during the lockdown periods from March 30th until June 8th played an important role in the decrease (up to 70%) of many gaseous species and aerosol PM10 concentrations and in the increase of surface ozone (up to 18%). The analysis of the pollutant concentrations during the lockdown showed much smoother diurnal cycle for most of the species due to the reduced intensity of traffic, especially during rush hours, compared with that before and after the lockdown. The specific meteorological conditions with low temperatures during the lockdown periods as well as the observed smoke air advection have made a considerable contribution to the air quality. After removing the cases with smoke air advection the decrease in concentration of many pollutants was observed, especially in NOx  and PM10. The analysis of Pearson partial correlation coefficients with fixed temperature factor has revealed a statistically significant negative correlation between the Yandex self-isolation indices (SII), which can be used as a proxy of traffic intensity, and daily concentrations of all pollutants, except surface ozone, which has a statistically significant positive correlation with SII caused by specific photochemical reactions. In situations with SII>2.5 more favorable conditions for surface ozone generation were observed due to smaller NOx and the higher O3 /NOx ratios at the same ratio of VOC/NOx. In addition, this may also happen, since during the Arctic air advection, which was often observed during the lockdown period, the growth of ozone could be observed due to the downward flux of the ozone-rich air from the higher layers of the atmosphere.

34
Abstract

The massive ice (MI) bodies are widespread phenomena on Chukotka coastal plains. Although they have been studying since 1930s, stable isotope method was applied for the ice beds quite recently. In this study cryostratigraphy and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of MI bodies on the extreme North-Eastern Chukotka (near Lavrentiya settlement and Koolen’ lake) have been studied in detail. It was concluded that studied MI bodies have intrasedimental origin and most likely are dated back to the Late Pleistocene age. Mean δ18O values range from –18.5 ‰ to –15 ‰ whereas mean δ2 H values range from –146‰ to –128 ‰ that is higher than expected for the Late Pleistocene ice bodies in this region, which most likely resulted from isotopic fractionation during freezing of water-saturated sediments in a closed system when forming ice became isotopically enriched compared with initial water. The analysis of co-isotope ratios for MI shows that initial water is mainly of meteoric origin (precipitation, water of lakes and taliks).

207
Abstract

In this paper, we review both practical and theoretical assessments for evaluating radon geohazards from permafrost landforms in northern environments (>60º N). Here, we show that polar amplification (i.e. climate change) leads to the development of thawing permafrost, ground subsidence, and thawed conduits (i.e. Taliks), which allow radon migration from the subsurface to near surface environment. Based on these survey results, we conjecture that abruptly thawing permafrost soils will allow radon migration to the near surface, and likely impacting human settlements located here. We analyze potential geohazards associated with elevated ground concentrations of natural radionuclides. From these results, we apply the main existing legislation governing the control of radon parameters in the design, construction and use of buildings, as well as existing technologies for assessing the radon hazard. We found that at present, these laws do not consider our findings, namely, that increasing supply of radon to the surface during thawing of permafrost will enhance radon exposure, thereby, changing prior assumptions from which the initial legislation was determined. Hence, the legislation will likely need to respond and reconsider risk assessments of public health in relation to radon exposure. We discuss the prospects for developing radon geohazard monitoring, methodical approaches, and share recommendations based on the current state of research in permafrost effected environments. 

39
Abstract

In this paper, the features of landscape indication of permafrost characteristics required for assessing the environmental state at various research scales are discussed. A number of permafrost characteristics affect the geoecological state and stability of natural landscapes, especially in the context of climate warming and technogenic surface disturbances. These include the distribution, temperature regime, thickness and cryogenic structure of permafrost, seasonal freezing and thawing, as well as the development of cryogenic processes. Their determination through the landscape view, however, is ambiguous. The choice of certain permafrost characteristics for geoecological assessment is based on many years of experience in creating cryo-ecological maps on a landscape basis by the school of Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University. The recent studies on the identification of regional cryoindicators are analyzed, including the issues of cryogenic landscapes classification and clarification of the boundaries of geocryological zones using the landscape structural method. The content of the two maps, «Permafrost Landscape Differentiation Map of the Russia Cryolithozone» at a scale of 1: 15,000,000 and «Permafrost Landscape Map of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)» at a scale of 1: 1,500,000, is presented, as well as their use as a basis for environmental planning and geoecological assessment.



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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)