Advanced search

Challenges Of Forest Governance In Addressing Redd+: Status, Effects And Prospects. The Case Of Bale Eco-Region, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

Full Text:


Reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is an internationally accepted mechanism for encouraging developing countries to contribute to climate change mitigation by reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) by preventing forest loss and degradation; and by increasing removal of GHGs from the earth’s atmosphere through the conservation, management and expansion of forests. This mechanism, however, has failed to bring the desired results in the Bale Eco-Region. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the main challenges of forest governance in addressing the implementation of REDD+ projects. Mixed research approach was employed. Relevant qualitative data were gathered through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires. This study revealed that the community produced a total of 5.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent in three years (between 2012 and 2015) as a contribution to the global environment. But, they were not received any economic incentives from the REDD+. Generally, while implementing the REDD+ project, forest governance of the Bale Eco-Region has faced different challenges, such as weak institutional arrangements, continuation of deforestation, low enforcement capacity, low economic benefit of the community, lack of strong coordination with media and research institutes, conflict of interest among sectors over forest land, and lack of adequate budget and logistics to undertake proper monitoring and evaluation. All these challenges have in one way or another contributed to the failure of the REDD+ project in the Bale Eco-Region.

About the Authors

Endalkachew Birhan
Addis Ababa University

Sidist Kilo Main Campus, Addis Ababa, 1000, 1176

Engdawork Assefa
Addis Ababa University

Sidist Kilo Main Campus, Addis Ababa, 1000, 1176

Maria A. Petrova
Georgetown University
United States

3700 O St NW, Washington, DC 20057


1. Angelsen A., Brockhaus M., Sunderlin W.D. and Verchot L.V. (2012). Analyzing REDD+: Challenges and choices. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

2. Arts B. (2014). Assessing forest governance from a ‘Triple G’ perspective: Government, governance, governmentality. Forest Policy and Economics, 49, 17-22, (online). Available at: [Accessed 21.03.2020].

3. Asfaw Z., Mulatu Y., Assefa B., Abebe T., Duna S., Mulugeta G., Berhanten H. and Kassa H. (2015). Enhancing the Role of Forestry in Building Climate Resilient Green Economy in Ethiopia. Strategy For Scaling Up Effective Forest Management Practices in SNNPR with an Emphasis on Agroforestry. Addis Ababa: Center for International Forestry Research.

4. Ayana N.A., Vandenabeele N. & Arts B. (2015). Performance of participatory forest management in Ethiopia: institutional arrangement versus local practices. Critical Policy Studies, (online). Available at: [Accessed 12.05.2019].

5. Bekele M., Tesfaye Y., Mohammed Z., Zewdie S., Tebikew Y., Brockhaus M. and Kassa H. (2015). The context of REDD+ in Ethiopia: Drivers, agents and institutions. Occasional Paper 127, Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.

6. Beyene A.D., Bluffstone R. and Mekonnen A. (2013). Community Controlled Forests, Carbon Sequestration and REDD+. Some Evidence from Ethiopia. Environment and Development Economics: 4, 1-24.

7. Beyene A.D., Bluffstone R. and Mekonnen A. (2015). Community forests, carbon sequestration and REDD+: evidence from Ethiopia. Environment and Development Economics 21, 249-272, DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X15000297.

8. Bluffstone R., Robinson E. and Guthiga P. (2013). REDD+ and community-controlled forests in low-income countries: Any hope for a linkage? Ecological Economics, 87, 43-52, (online). Available at: [Accessed 16/09/2020].

9. Deveries B., Avitabile V., Kooistra L. and Herold M. (2012). Monitoring the Impact of REDD+ Implementation in the UNESCO Kafa Reserves, Ethiopia. Sensing a changing world.

10. Duker A.E.C., Tadesse T. M., Soentoro T., de Fraiture C., Kemerink-Seyoum J.S. (2018). The implications of ignoring smallholder agriculture in climate-financed forestry projects: Empirical evidence from two REDD+ pilot projects. Climate Policy, (online). Available at: [Accessed 20.09.2019].

11. Engida T.G and Mengistu A.T. (2013). Explaining the Determinants of Community Based Forest Management: Evidence from Alamata, Ethiopia. International Journal of Community Development 1(2), 63-70, DOI: 10.11634/233828791301431.

12. FDRE Population Census Commission (2008). Summary and Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census. Population size by age and sex. UNFPA.

13. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (2018). Ethiopia, (online). Available at [Accessed 04/01/2021].

14. Groom B. and Palmer Ch. (2012). REDD+ and rural livelihoods. Special Issue Article: REDD+ and conservation. Biological Conservation, 154, 42-52, (online). Available at: [Accessed 16.09.2020].

15. Hailemariam S.N., Teshome S. and Demel T. (2015). Non-Carbon Benefits for Effective Implementation of REDD+: the case of Bale Mountain Eco-Region, SE Ethiopia. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 910, 747-764, DOI: 10.5897/AJEST2015.1953.

16. Hansen C.P., Lund J.F. and Treue T. (2009). Neither fast, nor easy: The prospect of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in Ghana. The International Forestry Review, 11(4), 439-455, (online). Available at: [Accessed 12.10.2020].

17. Larson A.M. and Petkova E. (2011). An Introduction to Forest Governance, People and REDD+ in Latin America: Obstacles and Opportunities. Forests, 2, 86-111, DOI: 10.3390/f2010086.

18. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (2015). Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) for the Implementation of REDD+ in Ethiopia Including the Oromia Forested Landscape Program (OFLP) Social Assessment (SA). Addis Ababa: the Ministry.

19. Mulyani M. and Jepson P. (2013). REDD+ and Forest Governance in Indonesia: A Multi Stakeholders Study of Perceived Challenges and Opportunities. SAGE, Journal of Environment and Development 22(3), 261-283, DOI: 10.1177/1070496513494203.

20. Peter N., Michelle F., Meghan C., Joel D., Derrick R., Brian S., Ryan S., Jessica Wh., Mark Y., Gernot B. and Arun A. (2014). Community Forest Management and REDD+ , Washington, DC: Program on forests (PROFOR).

21. Rahman H. and Miah D. (2017). Are Protected Forests of Bangladesh Prepared for the Implementation of REDD+? A Forest Governance Analysis from Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary. Environments Volume, 4(2), 43, (online). Available at: [Accessed 12/10/2020].

22. Ravikumar A., Larson A.M., Duchelle A.E., Myers R. and Tovar J.G. (2015). Multilevel governance challenges in transitioning towards a national approach for REDD+: evidence from 23 subnational REDD+ initiatives. International Journal of the Commons, 9(2), 909-931, (online). Available at: [Accessed 07.09.2020].

23. Vanderhaegen K., Verbist B., Hundera K. and Muys B. (2015). REALU vs. REDD+: Carbon and biodiversity in the Afromontane landscapes of SW Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management, 343, 22-33, (online). Available at: [Accessed 2.09.2020].

24. Yemane T. (1967). Statistics. An Introductory Analysis. 2nd ed. New York: Harper and Row Zerga B. and Gebeyehu G. (2016). Climate Change in Ethiopia. Variability, Impact, Mitigation, and Adaptation. International Journal of Research and Development Organization, 2(4), 5, (online). Available at: [Accessed 27.08.2019].

For citation:

Birhan E., Assefa E., Petrova M.A. Challenges Of Forest Governance In Addressing Redd+: Status, Effects And Prospects. The Case Of Bale Eco-Region, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2021;14(1):185-195.

Views: 108

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)