Advanced search

Achieving Gender Equality Through Electoral Participation Of Women: A Case Study Of 2005, 2010 And 2015 Assembly Elections In Patna (India)

Full Text:


United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 5 advocates for the promotion of gender equality. It ensures women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in politics. Females have a right to vote in elections, be elected to government office, serve on boards, and make their voices heard in any process that will ultimately affect them, their families, and their communities. Investing women’s right to political participation is a necessary step to achieve global gender equality and democratic governance.

The paper aims to analyze the spatio- temporal participation of women in assembly elections of 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Patna District, to find out association between women’s literacy levels and voting among women in the study area, and to identify motivational and situational constraints of women’s participation in electoral process. For the present study, Patna district has been selected as the study area. The author adopted questionnaire survey and key informant interviews as a means for data collection. The growing participation of women in elections indicates a silent movement of women empowerment. It is found that there is a rising trend in the voting participation of women in the study area. Both literate and illiterate groups are conscious about their voting rights.

About the Authors

Prerna Bharti
Patna University

Department of Geography, B.N College

Patna-800001, Bihar

Debjani Sarkar Ghose
Patna University

Department of Geography, Patna Women’s College

Patna-800001, Bihar


1. Kumar N., Raghunathan K., Arrieta A., Jilani A., Chakrabarti S., Menon P. and Quisumbing A.R. (2019). Social networks, mobility, and political participation: The potential for women’s self-help groups to improve access and use of public entitlement schemes in India. World development, 114, 28-41.

2. Adhikari S. (2005). Political Geography, Rawat Publications, Jaipur and New Delhi.

3. Akhter Z. and Sheikh Y.A. (2014). Determinants of Voting Behaviour in India: Theoretical Perspective. Public Policy and Administration Research, 4(8), 104-108.

4. Alam S. (2015). Participation of Women in Indian Politics and the Role of Media. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 4(1), 77-83.

5. Ali S. and Lin C. (2013). Why People Vote: Ethical Motives and Social Incentives. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 5(2), 73-98. Amani K.Z. (1970). Election in Haryana: A study in Electoral Geography, The Geographer, 17, 27-40.

6. Banerjee M. (2017). Why India Votes? Routledge, New Delhi and Oxon.

7. Begum S. (2015). Political Participation of Women: Some Issues and Challenges, International Journal of Applied Research, 11(1), 480-486. Bhatia U. (2013). Deliberative democracy and illiteracy: Exploring a theoretical gap. Journal of Public Deliberation, 9(2), 80-95.

8. Carole S. (2007). Female Political Leadership in India, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 45(3), 253-277.

9. Dahlerup D. (2005). Strategies to Enhance Women’s Political Representation in Different Electoral Systems. Gender, Governance and Democracy, Manila: Isis.

10. Dasgupta B. and Morris W.H. (1969). India’s. Political Arenas: Interim Report on and Ecological Perspective, Asian survey, 96, 399-424.

11. Datta A. and Rustagi Preet. (2012). Status of women in Bihar: Exploring transformation in work and gender relations. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 88, 66-87.

12. Deshpande and Rajeshwari (2004). How Gendered was Women’s Participation Women in Election 2004? Economic and Political Weekly, 39(51), 5431-5436.

13. Devi and Lakshmi (2005). Political Empowerment of Women in Indian Legislature: A Study, The Indian Journal of Political Science, 66(1), 75-92.

14. Dikshit H.H. and Giri S.K. (1983). Changing Spatial Pattern of the Parliamentary Constituencies in India from 1951–1976, Geographical Review of India, 45, 83-95.

15. Dikshit R.D. and S. Singh (1993). Friends and Neighbours Influence in Indian Elections: A Case Study of Rural Voting in Sonipat Parliamentary Constituency (Haryana), Asian Profile, 21, 483-493.

16. Fadia K. (2014). Women’s Empowerment through Political Participation in India, International Journal of public Administration, 60(3), 537-548.

17. Falcao V. (2009). Urban Patterns of Voting and Party Choices. Economic and Political Weekly, 44(39), 99-101.

18. Hussain M. and Mir A.M. (1984). The Assembly Election on Jammu and Kashmir: A Study in Spatial Voting Behaviour in 1983, National Geographical Journal of India, 30, 53-62.

19. Kashyap S.C. (2019). Constitution of India – A Handbook for Students. Vitasta Publishing, New Delhi.

20. Khanna M. (2009). Political Participation of Women in India. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 70(1), 55-64.

21. Mamta (2011). The Indian Journal of Political Science, 72(2), 614-616.

22. Muneshwar Yadav (2004). Politics from Below. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(51), 5510-5513.

23. Negi M.M.S (2011). Voting Attitude of Women in Uttarakhand with Special Reference to Garhwal. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 72 (3), 803-818.

24. Nelson B. and Chowdhary N. (Eds) (1994). Women and Politics Worldwide, London, Yale University Press.

25. Niti Aayog (2019). SDG India Index and Dash Board 2019–20, Niti Aayog, New Delhi.

26. Nor W.A., Gapor S.A. and Bakar M.Z.A and Harun Z. (2011). Some Socio-Demographic of Political Participation, IPEDR, 20(2011), 69-73.

27. Palmer ND (1976). Elections and Political Development. The South Asian experience, Vikas Publishing House, Delhi.

28. Rai P. (2017). Women’s Participation in Electoral Politics in India: Silent Feminisation, South Asia Research, 37(1), 58-77.

29. Rai Praveen (2011). ‘Electoral Participation of Women in India: Key Determinants and Barriers’, Economic and Political Weekly, 46(3), 47-55.

30. Sharma J.C. (1982). The Indian Context and Geographical Study of Voting Behaviour, Indian Geographical Studies, 19, 9-16.

31. Sinha K. (1985). Measuring Party Competition: A New Approach, Geographical Review of India, 47, 1-6.

32. Statistical Reports of Assembly Elections 2005, 2010 and 2015, Election Department, Bihar, Patna.

33. Verma R.K. and Yadav G.K. (1996). Women in Bihar Politics’ Economic and Political Weekly, 22, 935-937.

34. Weblinks: Inter-Parliamentary Union (2016). [Accessed on 20 January 2021].

35. Election Commission of India (2015).

36. Census of India (2011).

37. United Nations (2015).

For citation:

Bharti P., Sarkar Ghose D. Achieving Gender Equality Through Electoral Participation Of Women: A Case Study Of 2005, 2010 And 2015 Assembly Elections In Patna (India). GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2021;14(1):132-141.

Views: 37

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)