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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 8, No 3 (2015)

GEOGRAPHY

4-13 225
Abstract
The transport network policy aims to create a network of roads, railways, airlines, inland waterways and maritime transport and intermodal platforms extended to all European States. It has to improve connections between different modes of transport establishing a European network by 2050. When it will be completed the great majority of Europe’s businesses will be no more than 30 minutes’ travel time from this comprehensive network.
14-35 178
Abstract
The paper describes a new approach to the analysis of the genetic nature of mineral substances in loess deposits. In permafrost under the influence of multiple alternate freezing and thawing in dispersed deposits, quartz particles accumulate the 0.05-0.01 mm fraction, while feldspars are crushed to a coarse fraction of 0.1-0.05 mm. In dispersed sediments formed in temperate and warm climatic zones, the granulometric spectrum of quartz and feldspar has the opposite pattern. The proposed methodology is based on a differential analysis of the distribution of these minerals by the granulometric spectrum. We have proposed two criteria - the coefficient of cryogenic contrast (CCC) and the coefficient of distribution of heavy minerals, which allow determination of the degree of participation of cryogenic processes in the formation of loess sediments and processes of aeolian or water sedimentation.

ENVIRONMENT

36-54 185
Abstract
The stable oxygen isotope composition of Late Holocene syngenetic ice wedges from the Erkutayakha River valley in the Yamal Peninsula and from the Adventdalen valley in Svalbard was studied. It was demonstrated that the studied ice wedges located 2000 km apart were formed during the last 2-3.5 ka and continue to grow at present. Variations of δ18O values of the ice of both ice wedges do not exceed 2-3.5‰. Based on the oxygen isotope variations is has been calculated that mean winter air temperatures did not change by more than 3oC during the Late Holocene.
55-68 172
Abstract
More than 50 % of Nigeria is underlain by basement complex rock which is a poor aquifer unit and evidences abound that the climate of Nigeria is changing. The posing question is how this poor aquifer will respond to the vagaries of climate variability and change. However, understanding the response of groundwater to climate variability and change in Nigeria will be hampered by dearth of data, because the nature of change in groundwater is not monitored. On this basis, the study tried to understand how groundwater responds to weather variability in a poor aquifer unit of Ilara-mokin and its environs in the tropical area of Nigeria. Rainfall and temperature data for forty years (1973-2012) were collected from NIMET and groundwater level were monitored in the area for two years (2012-2014).The general trends in rainfall and temperature received in the last forty years were examined using regression analysis and moving average. The dry and wet episodes were also examined using Standard Rainfall Anomalies Index (SAI). Also, the percentage changes in the rainfall and temperature received were determined using reduction pattern analysis. The response of groundwater to weather variability was however established using Pearson Moment Correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results of the analyses revealed an average of six years dry episode every decade in the last 40 years. The temperature of the study area is increasing in the last 20 years. Groundwater responded negatively to temperature but positively to rainfall in the area. Rainfall and temperature accounted for 67 % of variability in monthly groundwater level. This study is a good starting point in understanding groundwater response to climate in poor aquifer units of Nigeria despite the dearth of data.

Sustainability

69-91 190
Abstract
Over the last 10 years, more than 4,000 natural disasters have been recorded around the world; they resulted in death of more than half a million people, which is 1.5 times greater than in the previous decade. Similarly, in the Republic of Kazakhstan, there has been an increase in occurrence of natural and technogenic disasters, leading to human casualties and substantial material loss. The paper demonstrates that risk management is one of the promising ways for providing safety of human activities. The methodology of risk management described in the paper is based on scientific and technological achievements and involves assessment of risks of natural and technogenic emergency situations (ES) emergence and associated damage. The paper provides systematization of natural hazards with isolation of geological, geomorphological, hydrological, climatic, and other processes. The characteristics of spatial distribution are identified; the level of hazard and risk of adverse impacts is shown; and a series of thematic maps at various scales, spatial coverage, and content is compiled for the Republic of Kazakhstan territory with consideration given to goals, objectives, and level of risk management.The paper demonstrates that natural and technogenic hazards are discrete in terms of emergence and their onset is of short duration. Risk management is broken into the following phases:1. Before the onset of ES;2. During the immediate threat of ES and their onset;3. After ES.The methodology suggests that all efforts of risk-management implementation should be directed towards achieving acceptable level and safety.
92-100 645
Abstract
Solar energy is considered one of the most promising and rapidly growing sectors of the world economy. In line with the international trend of switching to renewable energy sources, particularly solar, and because of the tragic events at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan is experiencing a real “solar boom.” However, despite all obvious advantages of using solar power (ensuring national energy security, overcoming concerns about environmental consequences of using fossil energy sources, etc.), Japan is facing several problems in its development. The most important one is the fact that technological and social progresses in Japan do not match each other as a result of a unique history of the nation. In order to promote renewable technology, the emphasis should be made on the role of the governmental policy and the effects of built-in tariffs for renewable energy sources. Considering dynamics and character of solar energy development in Japan, new energy strategy, and megasolar plants construction, the conclusion might be drawn that in the nearest future Japan will keep its place among the leaders in this field.


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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)