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THE METHODOLOGY OF NATURAL HAZARDS MANAGEMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2015-8-3-69-91

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Abstract

Over the last 10 years, more than 4,000 natural disasters have been recorded around the world; they resulted in death of more than half a million people, which is 1.5 times greater than in the previous decade. Similarly, in the Republic of Kazakhstan, there has been an increase in occurrence of natural and technogenic disasters, leading to human casualties and substantial material loss. The paper demonstrates that risk management is one of the promising ways for providing safety of human activities. The methodology of risk management described in the paper is based on scientific and technological achievements and involves assessment of risks of natural and technogenic emergency situations (ES) emergence and associated damage. The paper provides systematization of natural hazards with isolation of geological, geomorphological, hydrological, climatic, and other processes. The characteristics of spatial distribution are identified; the level of hazard and risk of adverse impacts is shown; and a series of thematic maps at various scales, spatial coverage, and content is compiled for the Republic of Kazakhstan territory with consideration given to goals, objectives, and level of risk management.The paper demonstrates that natural and technogenic hazards are discrete in terms of emergence and their onset is of short duration. Risk management is broken into the following phases:1. Before the onset of ES;2. During the immediate threat of ES and their onset;3. After ES.The methodology suggests that all efforts of risk-management implementation should be directed towards achieving acceptable level and safety.

About the Author

Akhmetkal R. Medeu
Institute of Geography
Russian Federation


References

1. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters - CRED www.emdat.be/data base

2. Medeu, A.R. (2008) Geographicheskiye osnovy obespecheniya bezopasnosti zhiznedeyatelnosti v zonakh opasnykh prirodnykh i tekhnogennykh protsessov (Geographic fundamentals for life safety in the areas of natural hazards and manmade processes) // geographicheskiye problemy ustoichivogo razvitiya. Teoriya i praktika. / Trudy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-practicheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 70-letiyu Instituta geografii. Almaty, Kazakhstan JSC TsNZMO, RK. pp. 8-16 (In Russian)

3. Medeu, A.R. (2011) Selevye yavleniya Yugo-Vostoka Kazakhstana. Osnovy upravleniya (Mudflows of the Southeast Kazakhstan. Management Basics). Almaty, 2011, Vol. 1, 284 p (In Russian)

4. The Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Kazakhstan. emer.gov.kz


For citation:


Medeu A.R. THE METHODOLOGY OF NATURAL HAZARDS MANAGEMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2015;8(3):69-91. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2015-8-3-69-91

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)