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Scientific and applied peer-reviewed journal

Aim of the journal “GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY” published in English is to illuminate related interdisciplinary scientific fields, many new approaches and methods along with a wide range of their practical applications. This goal covers a broad spectrum of scientific research areas and also considers contemporary and widely used research methods, such as geoinformatics, cartography, remote sensing (including from space), geophysics, geochemistry, etc.

In the areas of “GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, and SUSTAINABILITY” a new challenge to structure accumulated knowledge, to describe inner relations, and to form spheres of influence between different disciplines has emerged. The scope of the GES is to publish original and innovative papers that will substantially improve, in a theoretical, conceptual or empirical way the quality of research, learning, teaching and applying geography, as well as in promoting the significance of geography as a discipline.

The main sections of the journal are the theory of geography and ecology, the theory of sustainable development, use of natural resources, natural resources assessment, global and regional changes of environment and climate, social-economical geography, ecological regional planning, sustainable regional development, applied aspects of geography and ecology, geoinformatics and ecological cartography, ecological problems of oil and gas sector, nature conservations, health and environment, and education for sustainable development.

Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse. The printed version contains color figures . Color reproduction in print is free of charge of all accepted articles. Journal publishes 4 issues per year, each issue 120–150 pages long. Manuscripts are  submitted and peer-reviewed in an on-line mode.


Current issue

Vol 16, No 2 (2023)
View or download the full issue PDF


6-17 479

The Don River Long near Razdorskaya Village had long phases (lasting 33–86 years) of increased/decreased naturalized annual and seasonal water flow, and their properties for 1891–2019 were identified. Long-term changes in the annual and snow-melt flood flow occurred in the opposite phase relative to changes in the winter and summer-autumn flow. Annual hydrographs in the phase of decreased flow were characterized by an increase in water discharge during the low-water seasons of the year, but a noticeable decrease in daily flood water discharge and maximum water discharge. The share of high-water years (years with a flow exceedance probability equal to or less than 25%) in the phase of increased flow is significantly higher than the share of low-water years (years with a flow exceedance probability equal to or more than 75%). And on the contrary. At the same time the cumulative share of low- and high-water years remains relatively stable.  The total changes in the annual and seasonal flow, caused by both anthropogenic and climatic factors, throughout the entire period of modern global warming (since 1989) consisted in a decrease of the annual and snow-melt flood flow and an increase of flow values during low-water seasons.

18-30 355

. In the context of rapid urbanization, pollution and ecological degradation problems have frequently shown up and influenced environmental sustainability of rural China in the past decades. The rural residents have begun to pay attention to local environment protection, and researchers have been taking public perceptions into regional planning. However, comprehensive studies on the perceptions of villagers on rural environment development still remain less.  This research carried out a face-to-face questionnaire investigation of 187 villages and ten residents from each village at a nationwide scale of China. The investigated village committee managers and residents were interviewed by asking the questions including the existing environmental problems, the targets of rural environment development, the ways to achieve these targets and the willingness to pay for pollution control. The results showed that household waste pollution, air pollution and pesticides pollution etc. are top concerned problems. A big proportion (65%) of the interviewed residents chose “environment with good quality for health” as their preferred living environment. While, more than half of the interviewed village managers took “green villages with sustainable agriculture” as their village development targets. And more than 50% of the interviewed residents advocated to increase the forest coverage rate to mitigate the degeneration of rural ecosystem services. As well, most residents strongly support rural green development and are willing to pay for pollution control. Our findings may provide new insights into rural environment development and rural revitalization in the context of rapid urbanization.

31-39 274

The history of the early Middle Pleistocene small mammal faunas of Eastern Europe is very complicated. The early Middle Pleistocene which spanned from the Brunhes-Matuyama transition (772.9 ka BP, within MIS 19) till the beginning of the Likhvin Interglacial (424 ka BP, MIS 11) includes a number of interglacials and glaciations. Rodent species of the Tiraspolian faunal assemblage were found in the Chaudian fluvial deposits of the Cape Pekla section (northern coast of the Taman Peninsula). The evolutional level of the Pekla rodents are similar to those from the stratotype section of the Tiraspolian faunal assemblage in the Kolkotova Balka in Moldova (MIS 17) , which includes Eolagurus sp., Mimomys savini, Microtus (Terricola) arvalidens, Microtus (Alexandromys) ex gr. oeconomus and other species. The Pekla fauna also resembles the rodent fauna from famous English West Runton Freshwater Bed locality formed during the Cromerian Interglacial II and some other East and West European faunas. In the current work the entire loess-paleosol sequence of the Pekla section was described with five paleosols from the Middle to the Late Pleistocene. The sequence reflects the complexity of climatic fluctuations from the early Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene.

41-56 590

Due to Tropical Storm Dianmu’s influence in the Lam Khan Chu watershed (LKCW) area, central Thailand saw its worst flood in 50 years from September 23 to September 28, 2021. The flooding lasted for 1-2 months. The objective of this research is to study flood susceptibility using logistic regression analysis in LCKW area. According to the study 11 floods occurred repeatedly between 2005 and 2021, in the southern of Bamnetnarong district and continued northeast to Chaturat district and Bueng Lahan swamp. These areas are the main waterways of the LKCW area, the Lam Khan Chu stream and the Huai Khlong Phai Ngam, for which the dominant flow patterns are braided streams. The main factors influencing flooding are geology, stream frequency, topographic wetness index, drainage density, soil, stream power index, land-use, elevation, mean annual precipitation, aspect, distance to road, distance to village, and distance to stream. The results of the logistic regression analysis shed light on these factors. All such variables were demonstrated by the β value coefficient. The area’s susceptibility to flooding was projected on a map, and it was discovered to have extremely high and high levels of susceptibility, encompassing regions up to 148.308 km2 (8.566%) and 247.421 km2 (14.291%), respectively, in the vicinity of the two main river sides of the watershed. As a result of this research the flood susceptibility map will be used as a guideline for future flood planning and monitoring.

57-67 323

Flash floods have been blamed for significant losses and destruction all around the world are widely, including Vietnam, a developing nation that has been particularly hard hit by climate change. Therefore, flash flood hazards are essential for reducing flood risks. The topographic wetness index (TWI), altitude, slope, aspect, rainfall, land cover, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), distances to rivers and roads, and flow length were used in this study to create a spatial database of ten exploratory factors influencing the occurrence of flash floods in the Ngan Sau and Ngan Pho river basins (North-Central Vietnam). Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to calculate the weights of these influencing factors. The flood threat was then mapped using GIS techniques. The validation of the flash flood hazards involved 151 flood inventory sites in total. The findings demonstrate that (i) distance from rivers (0.14) and TWI (0.14) factors have the greatest influence on flash flooding, whereas distance from roads (0.06) and NDVI (0.06) factors were found to have the least influence; (ii) a good conformity of 84.8 percent between flood inventory sites and moderate to very high levels of flash flood hazard areas was also discovered; (iii) high and very high flood hazard levels covering areas of 275 and 621.1 km2 were mainly detected along and close to the main rivers and streams, respectively. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of GIS techniques, AHP, and Landsat-8 remote sensing data for flash flood hazard mapping.

68-76 296

The urban sprawl of cities periphery is one of such changes that has led to drastic land-use changes, which resulted in landscape fragmentation. The objective of this study is to understand the process of landscape fragmentation because of urban expansion; identifying the most influential drivers that have changed the land-use. To achieve the objectives due to changes in land use, a study had conducted in Ramallah area of Palestine. The study utilized Fragstat software to quantify the landscape changes with regard to its pattern and structure through a number of indices, also using Geographic Information System tool to draw up different landscape parcels spatially with its characteristics.

 The spatial analysis carried out on the land-use change used the 1997 and 2017 aerial photos to quantify the landscape fragmentation, which included a variety of land-uses. Over 52% of the study area underwent noticeable urbanization process, resulting in appreciable landscape changes to the area, especially after 1993. The statistical analysis of the landscape fragmentation revealed significant changes in land-use during the period from 1997 to 2017; the green landscape has been fragmented at a large scale by increasing the number of landscape patches (from 71 to 148 patches). As a result, there was an obvious reduction in agricultural lands, such as olive groves and grassland. At the same time, the urban surface areas increased from 654 patches in 1997 to 2019 patches in 2017. These results indicate that the landscape has become more fragmented due to geopolitical and socio-economic drivers since mid-1995 after Oslo accord.

77-83 354

The term “warm pool” refers to a body of water with the characteristic of SST exceeding 28°C within a particular area and a relatively long period in an annual circle. However, there are regions with an annual mean SST measured above 30°C, and we classified them as hot pools because of the conditions of intense solar radiation and low wind speed. One of the Hot Pool spots was found in Indonesia, in Cenderawasih Bay. The present study examines the existence of the Cenderawasih Hot Pool using long-term observation of satellite SST data. In order to learn more about their mechanisms, we also analyzed surface wind, surface heat flux, and surface current data. The results show that SSTs in Cenderawasih Bay have a 50% chance of exceeding 30°C within the 13 years of study (2013-2015). Heat input comes from strong solar radiation, i.e., 50% of solar radiation is more than 200 W/m2. The location is also dominated by low wind speed, i.e., 80% wind speed of lower than 4 m/s, which caused the low latent loss in Cenderawasih Bay. Cenderawasih Bay is fully separated from surface currents during the dry and wet seasons since the easterly subsurface water flow does not enter the bay. The absence of strong currents prevents the mixing process, maintaining the high temperature in the surface layer. Those processes are discovered and they serve as compelling evidence to support Cenderawasih Bay as one of the Hot Pool areas within the Indonesian seas.

84-92 268

The article presents data on the composition and seasonal dynamics of airborne pollen in Cherepovets and Vologda. The study was carried out from April 10 to September 30, 2014 and from April 16 to August 31, 2015 in Cherepovets, and from June 3 to September 30, 2019 in Vologda. Pollen data were obtained from the Durham gravimetric samplers. Samples were collected daily. Twenty-one types of pollen have been identified, ten of which are the most common allergenic types (Alnus, Artemisia, Betula, Fraxinus, Salix, Plantago, Poaceae, Quercus, Rumex, Urtica), which account for more than 50% of all pollen that has been registered. The article contains pollen calendars showing two peaks of pollen grain quantity: spring (from last decade of April to May), summer (from the end of June to the middle of July). Betula (30%) and Asteraceae (28%) pollen dominate in the pollen spectrum. Pinus (20%), Plantago (6%) and Poaceae (5%) also play an important role in the regional spectrum. The results show the presence of allergenic pollen from different taxa throughout the study. The proportion of damaged pollen grains is approximately 2%, which corresponds to the norm in natural population in normal condition. This data can become the basis for developing recommendations for reducing the level of pollinosis in the Vologda Region.

93-101 492

Human health is harmed by air pollution. The objective of this research was to show that air pollution in Pakistan is getting worse and is negatively impacting people’s health. IQ Air and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation provided the data for this descriptive research. Monthly data of PM2.5 μg/m³ from ten different localities across Pakistan are used to show spatial distribution through the geospatial technique of interpolation. The findings show that two third of the country has high PM2.5 concentration, with Lahore as the most polluted city. In Pakistan, solid fuel use has decreased, leading to a decline in associated mortality and morbidity. However, there have been significant increases in PM2.5 and ozone levels, resulting in a rise in the country’s overall health burden caused by air pollution. Furthermore, the number of deaths attributed to air pollution has also increased since 1990.  A total of 57% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 40% of lower respiratory infections, 36% of ischemic stroke, 35% of ischemic heart diseases, 32% of lung cancer, 25% of diabetes, and 20% of neonatal outcomes are directly attributed to air pollution in Pakistan. The main contributors to air pollution are population growth, growing motorization, and unsustainable energy usage. The main challenges due to air pollution control and monitoring in Pakistan include a lack of awareness, poor policy creation and implementation, the use of improper fuel, rising energy demands, and an absence of pollution monitoring stations in most cities. Therefore, there is a need for a robust air pollution monitoring system, increased public awareness, and the implementation of clean and sustainable policies to regulate this environmental health issue. 

102-109 160

Mangrove forests are an important part of tropical coastal ecosystems. Until recently, these forests were intensively exterminated. Currently, the issue of mangrove conservation is being discussed at a number of symposiums due to their significant role in reducing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. However, there has recently been uncertainty in estimation of CO2 fluxes in mangrove forests due to a lack of field research.

 The results of studies of photosynthesis at the leaf level in-situ in seedlings of Rhizophora apiculata Blume, 1827 of both natural and artificial origin are presented. The studies were carried out on a mangrove plantation growing in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, which is 50 kilometres from Ho Chi Minh City (South Vietnam). CO2 gas exchange during photosynthesis was measured using a gas analysing system called the LI-6800 (USA).

 Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) is the main factor affecting the photosynthesis of the studied seedlings. Artificial seedlings that were grown in open areas had higher productivity and greater photosynthetic rates. It has been determined that the measured photosynthesis are scattered over three clearly marked zones, which correspond to the measurements of photosynthesis made in the pre-noon, noon and afternoon hours. The water reserves used up before noon were not fully replenished in the afternoon by the seedlings. Based on the results obtained, it has been suggested that the main inhibitory factor affecting the photosynthesis of R. apiculata (if PAR is not taken into account) is a violation of the water balance of the leaves.The optimum air temperature for photosynthesis processes in seedlings is (35 ± 2) °C. The intensity of photosynthesis also increases with an increase in the concentration of CO2 in the air. The increases of photosynthesis continue until the concentration of CO2 reaches ~1000 µmol·mol-1 and then do not increase. We associate this circumstance with the maximum possibilities of the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaf of the studied plant.

 The obtained research results will contribute to a better theoretical understanding of the productivity of plants of this species in the respective ecosystems, and will also allow us to move from photosynthesis at the leaf level to photosynthesis at the planting level. The work’s mathematical models can be used to model changes in R. apiculata photosynthesis from the point of view of climate change.

110-120 253

During the industrialization in Europe, rivers were straightened and designed to fit human activities, thus nowadays only a few natural river systems remain as reference conditions as well as guiding principles for river restoration projects. Therefore, the natural state of some river types is often described using historic records and maps. This study aims to analyze the key characteristics of a pristine proglacial river Katun in the Altai mountains and contribute to the knowledge about reference conditions. For this purpose, hydromorphological characteristics like slope, sinuosity and river width of the river Katun were analysed and summarized using different GIS techniques. Additionally, pebble counts were carried out to assess the changing sediment composition along the longitudinal continuum. Combined with River Habitat Surveys and a one-dimensional flow simulation using HEC-RAS it was possible to give a holistic overview of the dynamic fluvial system Katun in its upper, middle and lower reaches. The results confirmed the relationship between the river and its surrounding topography as they clearly show the lateral development of the Katun. As shown for the individual parameters (e.g., slope, width, depth, flow velocity, shear stress), they influence each other and are strongly dependent and characteristic for each river section. In the context of revitalisation of straightened and / or channelized river courses, it is important to focus on the processes of this interaction and provide suitable space for lateral expansion. The study can be seen as a recommendation on how to analyse hydromorphological characteristics of fluvial systems as well as to establish guiding principles in river restoration using remote sensing.

121-131 341

Agrotourism is one of the main economic activities in the municipality of Venda Nova do Imigrante, located in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this research was to analyse the landscape changes generated by this economic activity. The methodology’s development through a stratified random selection, the thematic quality of the maps from the MAPBIOMAS platform was assessed. A confusion matrix was produced, and the kappa coefficient was calculated. Landscape metrics, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) from Instagram and Flickr Social Networks, satellite images and free Brazilian databases were used, along with the use of open source GIS software to analyse changes use and cover of land in the municipality generated over a period of 30 years and its relationship with agrotourism. In the results, it was obtained that the thematic quality of maps from the MAPBIOMAS platform was acceptable, the analysis of VGI in social networks was identified agrotourism farms located mainly in the south-east area of Venda Nova do Imigrante, the analysis of changes in land use and cover showed that the city had an increase in urban area around the Federal Highway BR-262 that cuts through the city and rural areas, as well as in the agrotourism farms evaluated, there was an increase in agricultural areas and planted forests. 

132-141 257

Leading environmental organizations recognize intact forest landscapes as priority areas for conserving forests. A quarter of global intact forest landscapes (IFL), are found in Russia, and since 2000, the country has lost over 7,5% (or 21 million ha) of its IFLs due to logging, forest fires and road construction. With the projected logging rates Russia’s IFLs will completely disappear in 150 years, and IFLs that are “rich” in timber will do so in 50 years. Protection of IFLs is the serious challenge, not only due to associated biodiversity loss, but also due to outstanding carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation role of IFLs.

 The objective of this research is to define the key drivers and factors and to examine how government and market-driven approaches contribute to the preservation of intact forest landscapes in Russia. A further objective is to assess the merits of consumers restriction measures, such as phase-out of IFL product purchases, as proposed by some environmentalists.  According to our research, voluntary forest certification (market-driven approach) was the main tool for IFL protection in Russia until recently. A market-driven FSC voluntary certification scheme includes moratoria agreements to preserve almost 3 million ha of IFLs. Additionally, between 2010 and 2020 more than 770 thousand ha of IFLs were established in two national parks and three nature reserves in North-West Russia with the primary goal to protect IFLs, mainly in former FSC “no logging” zones. Market-driven approach is currently the main tool used to protect IFLs in Russia.

142-151 245

Numerous rivers, lakes and other water features have suffered significant alterations as a result of human economic activity. As a result, hydrometric, hydrological, biological, ecological conditions, as well as morphometric elements of these objects were violated.

 In this regard, Lake Sevan and its basin might be used as a well-known example. There has never been any instance in the history of limnology where a lake’s level was artificially lowered by 18 meters over 3 to 4 decades (1930–1970), and by another 2 meters at the end of the 20th century (1990–2000). Additionally, the lake’s water volume dropped from 58 billion m3 to 32 billion m3.

 The Sevan problem first surfaced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is still a problem today. However, it has many meanings/soundings at different times. Based on this, we usually divided the entire study period into several stages. It should be noted that the ecosystem has suffered irreparable losses as a result of the use of the Lake Sevan resources, inadequate water resource management, and both positive and negative effects of these factors.

 We disagree with the assertions of many experts that problems can only be prevented or solved by raising the lake level. Therefore, extensive actions must be taken in the Sevan basin management area, regardless of the lake’s level.




We are pleased to announce that the most cited paper of 2021 in the GES journal is "Monitoring Land Use And Land Cover Changes Using Geospatial Techniques, A Case Study Of Fateh Jang, Attock, Pakistan" by Aqil Tariq et al. Congratulations!



We are pleased to announce new Special Issue of the GES journal: "Urban dust: environmental risk and health impact"

The purpose of this special issue is to highlight methodological issues in assessing the environmental risk and health impact associated with urban dust exposure. Field, experimental and modeling studies related to the analysis of urban dust in various environments, identification of urban dust sources, impact on air quality and public health, or any review study on these topics are welcome.

Invited editors:

  • Dr. Natalia Shartova, International Laboratory for Landscape Ecology, Higher School of Economics,, Moscow, Russia;
  • Dr. Dmitry Vlasov, Department of Landscape Geochemistry and Soil Geography, Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University,, , Moscow, Russia;
  • Prof. Nikolay Kasimov, Head of Department of Landscape Geochemistry and Soil Geography, Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia;
  • Dr. Andrian A. Seleznev, Institute of Industrial Ecology of Russian Academy of Sciences,  Ekaterinburg, Russia.

Submission deadline: March 31st, 2023.



GES journal metrics in Scopus have been updated for 2021. The journal now included in Q2 in the category of Geography, Planning and Development.

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