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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 4, No 2 (2011)

GEOGRAPHY

4-21 136
Abstract
The subject of this paper is the glaciation of the mountain massifs Mongun-Taiga, Tavan-Boghd-Ola, Turgeni-Nuru, and Harhira-Nuru. The glaciation is represented mostly by small forms that sometimes form a single complex of dome-shaped peaks. According to the authors, the modern glaciated area of the mountain massifs is 21.2 km2(Tavan-Boghd-Ola), 20.3 km2 (Mongun-Taiga), 42 km2 (Turgeni-Nuru), and 33.1 km2 (Harhira-Nuru).
The area of the glaciers has been shrinking since the mid 1960’s. In 1995–2008, the rate of reduction of the glaciers’ area has grown considerably: valley glaciers were rapidly degrading and splitting; accumulation of morainic material in the lower parts of the glaciers accelerated. Small glaciers transformed into snowfields and rock glaciers. There has been also a degradation of the highest parts of the glaciers and the collapse of the glacial complexes with a single zone of accumulation into isolated from each other glaciers. Reduced snow cover area has led to a rise in the firn line and the disintegration of a common accumulation area of the glacial complex. In the of the Mongun-Taiga massif, in 1995–2008, the firn line rose by 200–300 m. The reduction of the glaciers significantly lagged behind the change in the position of the accumulation area boundary. In the past two years, there has been a significant recovery of the glaciers that could eventually lead to their slower degradation or stabilization of the glaciers in the study area.

22-29 112
Abstract
An analysis of extreme characteristics of surface wind waves in the three marginal Russian seas (Barents, Black and the Sea of Okhotsk) was performed using visual wave observations. Estimates of extreme seas, swell and significant wave heights were computed using the initial value distribution method and the peak over threshold method. Due to the use of large samples compiled for the entire seas the differences between the two methods are considerably smaller than those that would be expected for grid-cell estimates. This implies a relatively high reliability of the results. In the Barents Sea both methods demonstrate growing tendencies for the extreme wind waves, while mean values do not exhibit any significant trends. This hints at a considerable modification of the statistical distribution of wind wave heights rather than on general growth of wind seas. Some further perspectives of the analysis of regional wind wave extremes are discussed.

30-40 144
Abstract
Recent studies have revealed a reduced sensitivity of tree-growth to temperature at high Northern Hemisphere (NH) latitudes during recent decades. Causes of this reduction are not known, but it seems to be for certain that this reduction has important implications for paleoclimatic reconstructions based on tree-rings because there is a risk that warmer phases of paleoclimates can be essentially underestimated if the problem is not taken into account. We add some more observational evidences of the reduction and argue: it is a signal that temperatures recently have reached above optimum levels for the tree-growth in some areas of NH. If such equally warm, or warmer, phases existed in the past, and if tree-growth responded negatively to temperatures during these phases, it would be necessary to apply separate transfer functions to calibrate tree-ring records in terms of temperature for warmer and colder phases of the past climates.

ENVIRONMENT

41-46 118
Abstract
The paper presented herein describes a conceptual geo-ecological model of a natural complex that may be used to study polystructural landscape organization of a geographical area at the sub-regional level. The significance of the zonal component in the differentiation of natural environmental properties of Moldova’s territory has been assessed.

47-58 155
Abstract
The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia). The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.

Sustainability

59-71 301
Abstract
The regional planning is conceived to apply during the period defined for each sectorial plan: It isn’t yet question of inflecting a retrospective effect in according of the results, except when a master plan in submit a revision. In this situation, it would be the principal needs to build indicators. The period of adoption of the urban or regional plans is an obstacle: it is not so easy to set up a method to follow and evaluation for plans working towards for 5 years or less.
It’s necessary to also recognize the difficulty in working out with simple and mutual indicators. The spatial representation of the indicators is not simple: all the variables cannot be declined in all scales either on account of the relevance, or on account of the availability of the local data. We’ll describe here the first results of two environmental indicators (the ecological footprint and the global index of quality of life and wellbeing).
The ecological footprint confirms the interest to develop a model of dense and compact cities (careful in consumption of space, energy efficiency in particular thanks to public transport…) even if it is a no sufficient requirement that the effective ecological footprint does not exceed the limits.
The Indicator of environmental quality (IQE) presents a France performance of 58 and l’ Ile-de-France of 56. On the other hand, the performance of Indicator of quality of life (IQS) Ile-de-France the performance is better (57) than France (55). One thus notes that, when one mobilizes a great number of indicators, the performances of the Ile-de-France approach those of France average. From the point of view of a sustainable development, the quality of life and the quality of ecosystem to appear like objectives cannot be overlooked of all level of territories; regional level take a key position.

72-84 172
Abstract
The article summarizes large volume of historical and geographical data on the influence of nomadic peoples on the landscapes of northern Eurasian steppe during the pre-agricultural phase, i.e. prior to the 18–19th centuries. It was concluded that landscapes of the steppe belt represented natural-anthropogenic complexes resulting from cultural transformation of the area by nomadic peoples. The article addresses the key issues facing a new field of study called steppe science.

NEWS AND REVIEWS

85-86 85
Abstract

Anniversary of Andrei Alekseevich Velichko

87-92 65
Abstract

THE XXV INTERNATIONAL CARTOGRAPHIC CONFERENCE AND THE XV GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE INTERNATIONAL CARTOGRAPHIC ASSOCIATION



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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)