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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 11, No 2 (2018)
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GEOGRAPHY

5-16 197
Abstract

The article deals with the analysis of the tourist destination images of Japan and its prefectures and contains the results of the research carried out both based on examination of official Japanese statistics and tourist literature in Japanese, English and Russian and social polls in Russia and field studies in Japan. In this paper we present the results of the research conducted by the specially created for this work original method of tourist literature review that allowed us to select prefectures most rich in different tourist images and to develop a typology of Japanese prefectures. To present day the research of such kind is a unique one not only about Japan but on the whole as well. 

17-28 127
Abstract

The primary source of population data in Nigeria is the census despite its inconsistency. Consequently, efforts made to estimate population from such census figures and sometimes vital registration system has proved inadequate because of diverse problems. This study is aimed at developing a technique of population estimation in Nigeria using symptomatic data. The data for this study were collected through survey method, immunization and school enrolment data were collected from the Expanded Programme on Immunization and Ministry of Education, respectively. The average number of people per house or crowding index (CI) for Kabba was combined with immunization and school enrolment to establish a relationship which was subsequently used in regression analysis to estimate population. The results show that the population of Kabba and Kogi State were 70,870 and 4,230,382, respectively. The study recommended that the model can be used for population estimation in Nigeria and in places that have similar population data generation problems.

29-45 174
Abstract

The paper presents approach used for the development of the forecasting system of extreme hydro-meteorological events in the region of the Sea of Azov. Due to numerous dangerous extreme events that occurred in the beginning of XXI century the issue of creation such system has become very relevant and important. The forecasting system, named EX-MARE, was started developing in 2014 as a complex of mathematical models. For each type of hydro-meteorological events, the modeling component was designed. The EX-MARE system is based on a scenario approach implied the consideration a variety of possible futures taking into account the existing uncertainty. Accurate extreme events estimation requires automated monitoring systems and longterm database application. In the paper, the detail description of the system components and the data sources is examined. Three case studies about the sea surges, flash flood and ice conditions researches demonstrate the application of the EX-MARE system and the benefits of its using. Further development of the EX-MARE system assumes adding data on exposure and vulnerability to perform the risk assessment, as well as focusing on multi-hazards exploring methodology.

ENVIRONMENT

46-62 144
Abstract

The article considers the main trends in the environmental situation in the New Moscow in connection with the acquisition of capital status and rapid population growth. The New Moscow is the territory annexed to Moscow as part of a large-scale project to expand the territory of Moscow at the expense of the Moscow oblast in July 2012. Under the influence of both hereditary and transformational factors, the situation in Moscow new adjoint area is rapidly deteriorating, and for Moscow in the old borders inherited factors are mostly negative for the formation of the environmental situation, and the transformation is in the direction of slow and gradual improvement.

In Moscow new adjoint area the structure of pollution sources is linked to the postindustrial type of cities (heating systems and other non-industrial sources, vehicles), as the most non-industrial part of the Moscow region was chosen to join the capital. The level of pollution is low, but the environmental efficiency is also low and the level of pollution is growing rapidly. The decline in production and structural changes in industry, as well as the growth of the car fleet, the change in traffic conditions along the roads, led to a change in the territorial proportions in atmospheric pollution in Moscow, both in the old and new boundaries, and the scale of housing construction in Moscow new adjoint area led to a pressure on water sources and changing natural landscapes.

63-72 155
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the review of the World Karst Natural Heritage and the perspectives of such new properties in the Russia. Presently there are 37 World Karst Natural Heritage sites on the globe; 34 of them have the natural heritage and 3 sites have the mixed, natural-cultural significance. The World Karst Heritage distribution by the countries and by parts of the world was analyzed. A brief description of outstanding universal value of the “Lena Pillars Nature Park”, being currently the only Russian karst area nominated at the List of World Natural Heritage by a specific type of the karst – ground frozen karst, was given. The necessity of the new World Karst Heritage properties characterizing by the karst development in sulfate and salt rock sites are considered. The karst areas, located in extreme (cold or arid) climate conditions, are in the focus of separate attention.

73-83 215
Abstract

In this study the aerosols influence on selected meteorological parameters during two summer 2010 periods is evaluated with focus on the North-West Russia and urban area of St. Petersburg. For that, the seamless fully online-integrated Enviro-HIRLAM model is used. The simulations are realised in short- and long-term modes for selected periods. For evaluation of aerosol influence, in addition to the control/ reference run, the runs with direct, indirect and both combined aerosol effects are performed.

It was found that for the North-West Russia region, the direct aerosol effect had increased air temperature (by 1-3˚) and decreased total cloud cover (by 10-20%). The indirect effect decreased temperature (by 0.4-1˚) and increased cloud cover (by 10-20%). The combined effect was the largest territorially; and such effect both decreased temperature and cloud cover (by 1-3˚ and by 6-20%, respectively) as well as increased these (by 0.4-0.6˚ and 1020%).

84-96 168
Abstract

The analysis of the CO and CH4 total column (TC) as well as aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in urban and background regions of Eurasia for different seasons and periods from 1998 to 2016 years is presented. Trends estimates based on longterm spectroscopic datasets of OIAP RAS (Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences) for stations Moscow, Zvenigorod (ZSS, Moscow province), Zotino (ZOTTO, Central Siberia), Beijing (joint site of OIAP RAS and IAP CAS (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences)), SPbSU stations Peterhof and NDACC stations located in Eurasia were compared between themselves and with similar assessments obtained from satellite data. Significant decrease of anthropogenic CO in megacities Moscow (3.5±2.2%/yr) and Beijing (1.4±1.4%/yr) in autumn months of 1998−2016 were found according ground-based spectroscopic observations. In spite of total anthropogenic CO emissions decrease (for Europe and China) and absence of growth of wild-fires emissions in 2007−2016 we found that CO TC in background regions of Northern Eurasia has stabilized or increased in summer and autumn months of 2007−2016. Decrease of AOD over Central and Southern Europe and over China (1−5%/ yr) was observed after 2007. Since 2007 an increase in CH4 TC trends over Northern Europe as well as for tropical belt of Eurasia has been obtained. Analysis of satellite observations AIRS v6 of CO and CH4 TC and MODIS AOD data confirmed the ground-based estimates of trends.

Sustainability

97-107 116
Abstract

The study discusses the experience of «Veliky Ustyug – Ded Moroz Homeland» - one of the most successful Russian projects of regional tourism development in scarcely populated and depressed areas of the Russian North.

Founded in 1147, Veliky Ustyug is among the oldest towns of the Russian North with a ‘historic city’ and ‘open-air museum’ status. However, in the 1980-1990s it was a typical small town with depressive socio-economic structure based on forestry, small enterprises, folk crafts and distinctive social challenges such as migration, high unemployment, et al. The project «Veliky Ustyug – Ded Moroz Homeland» comparable to Santa Claus Village in Rovaniemi, Finland has increased greatly the tourist flow to the town and improved considerably its socio-economic situation.

The research is based on extensive field studies, theoretical observations and includes statistics analysis as well as the results of in-depth interviews with experts and regional stakeholders taken in 2011-2016, review of official legislation. Study reveals that the  main idea of the project is to revitalize the depressed community with a wide range of social, educational, economic, infrastructural, cultural, leisure and tourism activities to promote its future sustainable development. The project life cycle is discussed within the birth, growth and maturity periods; each of them is provided with quantitative characterization. Key problems of the project and their possible solutions are identified. The main constraints to the project connected with poor transport accessibility of the destination and high seasonality of tourism demand are considered.

108-124 166
Abstract

Present article follow up the recent debates that is being discussed in the country with respect to the National Food Security Act – 2013. Present article is based on the secondary sources of information collected through various books, magazines, journals, newspapers, government and non-governmental reports. The purpose of the article is to trace the discussion among various economist, planners, researchers and policy makers in order to analyse whether National food Security Act is a triumph for those who are in desperate need of it (poor and destitute), or a tragedy for those officials speaking against the Act. The main emphasis of the article is to discuss the cost of implementation of NFSA because it was believed that after its implementation it will put heavy burden on the government exchequer due to subsidies provided under it.  Article also examines the challenges related to Food Corporation of India with respect to procurement, storage and distribution of foodgrains. Moreover, article also discusses the NFSA with respect to the Integrated Child Development Scheme, its affect on small and marginal farmers of the country, challenges related to public distribution system.

125-137 127
Abstract

The species diversity and the structure of the opportunistic fungi complexes in the forest Albic Podzols under the impact of the Aluminum and Copper-Nickel Plants emissions, as well as in the Hortic Anthrosol contaminated by the oil products (diesel fuel, gas condensate, mazut) in the north-west region of Russia (the Kola Peninsula) have been investigated. The share of the opportunistic fungi increase up to 15% in the zones of the Aluminum and Copper-Nickel Plants emissions comparable to the background soil, and up to 20-25% in the soils contaminated by the oil products has been revealed. The majority of the fungi species belong to the following genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Lecanicillium, Phoma and Cladosporium. The structure of the fungal complexes has changed in the polluted soil, that is, the species abundance and the frequency of the opportunistic fungi occurrence have increased. The strains of the fungi isolated from the contaminated soil reveal the potential pathogenicity in a greater degree, than the strains isolated from the clean soil. 55% of the total amount of fungi strains isolated from the soils contaminated by the Aluminum Plant emissions had the potential pathogenicity. The most dangerous for a human’s health were Amorphotheca resinae, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium commune, P. purpurеogenum, Trichoderma viride isolated from the soils contaminated by the Aluminum Plant emissions; and P. aurantiogriseum, P. glabrum, P. commune, P. simplicissimum, Rhizopus nigricans isolated from the soils contaminated by the oil products. Those species revealed protease, phospholipase activity, as well as the growth ability at the temperature 37°C



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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)