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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 10, No 3 (2017)
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GEOGRAPHY

4-19 303
Abstract
Frequency and intensity of river floods rise observed in the North Caucasus during last decades is considered to be driven by recent climate change. In order to predict possible future trends in extreme hydrological events in the context of climate change, it is essential to estimate the contribution of different feed sources in complicated flow-forming processes in the alpine part of the North Caucasus. A study was carried out for the Djankuat River basin, the representative for the North Caucasus system. Simultaneous measurements of electrical conductivity, isotopic and ion balance equations, and energy balance modeling of ice and snow melt were used to evaluate the contribution of different sources and processes in the Djankuat River runoff regime formation. A forecast of possible future changes in the Djankuat glacier melting regime according to the predicted climate changes was done.
20-30 1308
Abstract
An alternative approach to information extraction from Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery is proposed. It involves transformation the image space into visible 3D form and comparing location in this space the segments of the ecosystem types with expressed graphically typology of forest and mire cover (biogeocenotic scheme). The model is built in LC1-LC2-MSI axis (the two first principal components of the image matrix in logarithmic form and moisture stress index). Comparing to Tasseled Cap, this transformation is more suitable for study area (north taiga zone of Eastern Fennoscandia). The spectral segments of mature and old-growth forests line up from the ecological optimum (moraine hills) along two main environmental gradients: i) lack of water and nutrition (fluvioglacial sands bedrock) and ii) degree of paludication (lacustrine plains). Thus, the biogeocenotic complexes are identified. The succession trajectories of forest regeneration through spectral space are also associated with the type of Quaternary deposits. For mire ecosystems spectral classes accurately reflect the type of water and mineral nutrition (ombrotrophic or mesotrophic). Spectral space model created using measured by the scanner physical ecosystem characteristics can be the base for developing objective classification of boreal ecosystems, where one of the most significant clustering criterions is the position in the spectral space.

ENVIRONMENT

31-43 390
Abstract
Digital terrain models (DTM) were produced with the structure from motion (SfM) technique, using data from high resolution terrestrial photography. In addition 360-degree spheres were created from ground taken photos. These spheres allow capturing the environment at this moment and coming back to the environment virtually later on. Also overlapping this virtual realty of the environment with model results can be used for distributing study results to a broad audience. On this basis hydraulic and morphological conditions were assessed and compared to field records. The proposed methods enable the creation of a detailed view on different riverine systems, i.e. from small to large rivers. This enables a morphodynamic characterisation which can be linked with the biological dataset of the monitoring project REFCOND_VOLGA. We propose that environmental intelligence gathering using ground-based as well as remote sensing observations can be applied increase the scope of scientific surveillance, and can lead to new opportunities to detect and quantify complex ecological interactions across a wide spectrum of scales.
44-53 321
Abstract
The Kharaa River Basin has some of the highest densities of population, agricultural and industrial activities in Mongolia. This puts the naturally limited water resources under pressure in both a quantitative and qualitative perspective. Besides mining, key sources of surface water contamination include large numbers of livestock in riverine floodplains and the discharge of untreated or poorly treated waste waters, both into rivers and by soil infiltration. Since both shallow groundwater and river water are used by people and for livestock, there are at least theoretical risks related to the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Only a very limited number of studies on water and hygiene have so far been conducted in Mongolia, all indicating (potential) risks to water users. However, a lack of current and reliable water microbiology data leads to the need of systematic screening of water hygiene in order to derive conclusions for public health and drinking water management at the local and regional scale.

SUSTAINABILITY

54-65 367
Abstract
Climate change is a global environmental problem that is caused due to human-induced increasing levels of the Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). The consequences of climate change are so severe that no country is immune from it. The problem of climate change has created a profound dilemma. There is no global treaty on climate change that can effectively reduce GHGs emission, fix the responsibilities and recompense damages caused to the environment. However, the contentious issue is: To what extent the developed countries should assist the poor countries in meeting the cost of adaptation? The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has emphasized on assisting poor and the most vulnerable developing countries. During the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, various countries adopted Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to stabilize their emissions of the GHGs. The key intention behind this collective action was to limit the level of temperature below 2oC over pre-industrial level in coming years. But mere pledges are not enough. In fact, more effective measures are needed to cope with rising global temperature. Moreover, significant changes are required in existing climate change policies and programmes. The United Nations (UN) emphasized the principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility at the Kyoto, Bali, and Copenhagen conferences but the biggest contributors have refused to accept and abide by this principle. At the same time, things are not quite simple as limitation on CO2 mean limitations on economic growth. This has made climate negotiations a very contentious political issue as a result of which the very object of the UN to limit GHG emissions have turned into a tug of war. There is no serious political will to support climate change endeavours. Hundreds of measures have been negotiated in this direction, yet, most of these face problem of implementation. We should act efficiently and quickly to adapt to adverse consequences as projected by the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The effective mitigation measures must be taken, worldwide, to tackle climate change urgently. The time is running out. The climate change is the greatest challenge that requires immediate solution. The present paper critically analyses progress made in the field of climate change in the post-Kyoto period and provides to what extent treaties, like, Copenhagen Accord has been successful in dealing with climate change. The work of paper is primarily based on analytical and empirical approach. The significance of the study lies in the fact that climate change is a burning phenomena that the world community facing today. In fact, its solution is required. In this paper authors argue that no country in an isolated manner can cope with the problem of climatic change. In fact, global efforts based on cooperation of all states are very important.
66-86 334
Abstract
This study examines changes that have occurred in the resource utilization sector and the impact of these changes on population dynamics in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russia) during the post-Soviet period. This paper discuss topics of population-dynamics-related differences that have emerged in the region and impacts of these differences on the use of natural resources and the ethnic composition of the population. Through this study, it was shown that changes have tended to be small in local areas where indigenous peoples who have engaged in traditional natural resource use for a large proportion of the population, while changes have been relatively large in areas where the proportion of non-indigenous people is high and the mining industry has developed.
87-98 240
Abstract
Health status is one of the important indicators for the welfare of people. People working in unorganized sector are exploited in terms of working hours, low and irregular income, unsatisfactory work conditions, no legal protection and exposed to occupational health hazards. Present study aims to analyze a spatial dimension of occupational health outcomes among the cottage industry workers and their socioeconomic conditions. Based on field survey, the result shows that there is an association between different categories of industries and various health problems which leads respiratory and muscular problem, skin disease, and stress and sleep disturbances. There should be a strong provision for occupational health services, carrying out activities in the work place in the aim of protecting and promoting worker’s safety, health and well-being.


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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)