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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 7, No 4 (2014)
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GEOGRAPHY

4-27 206
Abstract
Earthquake loss estimations before future events and following strong earthquakes
in emergency mode and their corresponding visualization are extremely important for proper
decision on preventive measures and effective response in order to save lives and properties. The paper addresses the methodological issues of seismic risk and vulnerability assessment, mapping with GIS technology application. Requirements for simulation models,
databases used at different levels, as well as ways of visualizations oriented for Emergency
Management Agencies, as well federal and local authorities are discussed. Examples of
mapping at the different levels: global, country, region and urban one are given and the
influence of input data uncertainties on the reliability of loss computations is analyzed.
28-39 451
Abstract
Industrial tourism, i.e. visiting both active and historic industrial plants (or their historical remains), has been a growing sector in tourism for years, but is nevertheless unlikely to lose its “niche” character... Today it is generally offered under the general heading of cultural tourism, and in this context is often also marketed as active or adventurous tourism (and associated with educational aims), both in marked contrast to the traditional relaxing holiday. The forms of supply and demand that have developed in industrial tourism are of growing significance both for historic and active industrial regions, as such
tourism can provide very positive stimuli for structural policy, regional economies and reputations. Recently, remarkable industrial tourism destinations (industrial Brand Worlds) have emerged both in the old industrialised countries of Europe and North America and
in Newly Industrialising Countries/NICs, e.g. in Asia. Many of these destinations need not
fear comparison with the attractiveness of classical destinations for national or even
international tourism, and a few leading industrial sites already have impressive visitor numbers.
After a brief overview of the current state of supply and demand in industrial tourism in
Germany, the following points will form the focus of the analysis:
–– Suppression of controversial and dark
aspects of industrialisation (especially in
times of war, annexation and occupation)
–– Innovations (particularly in the form
of so-called Brand Worlds, e.g. in the
automobile industry).

ENVIRONMENT

41-53 219
Abstract
The paper presents the results obtained under the joint Russian-Chinese RFBR project № 12-05-91175-ГФЕН_а aimed at assessment of the state of the environment and health of the population in urban areas in Russia and China. The paper presents the authors’ approach to a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the environment on the population
health of urban agglomerations and a method of regional medico-geographical analysis. A series of analytical and synthetic maps was compiled and used for a comparative geographical analysis of medical and environmental situation in Moscow and Beijing – major metropolitan areas with different natural and socio-economic conditions. The paper discusses the influence of the environment on the state of public health and identifies the leading risk factors, both general and specific to each region.
54-67 470
Abstract
Globalization is determined by creation and growth of global capital markets for goods and services at international trade and environment level. In year 2013, the total food sales
of the top 100 food companies in the world amounted to US$ 1,332,070 million. The headquarters of these companies are established in 20 different countries in 6 different geographical areas. The food sales comprised of 39 % from North America, 32 % from Europe, 21 % from Eastern Asia, % 3 from South America, 3 % from Nordic, and 2 % from Oceania. Globalization potentially creates monopolies. Most of the literatures on environmental issues indicate that these companies increase their profits in three ways: cheap labour, unethical policies, exploitation of environmental resources.
68-79 539
Abstract
This paper is based on field data obtained during short visits to a newly formed permafrost feature in a form of relatively narrow, deep crater. Excluding impossible and improbable versions of the crater’s development, the authors conclude that it originated from warmer
ground temperatures and an increase in unfrozen water content, leading to an increase in pressure from gas emissions from permafrost and ground ice. This conclusion is also supported by known processes in the palaeo-geography of Yamal lakes and recent studies of gas-hydrate behavior and subsea processes in gas-bearing provinces.

Sustainability

81-93 336
Abstract
In the wake of a growing concern about the unchecked rise of poverty and the consequences of water scarcity, the relationships between water and poverty form an object of a sprawling literature. This research seeks to study access to rural water supply in Irepodun Local Government Area (LGA), Kwara State. Data were sourced from the 11wards in the LGA. Twenty households were sampled per ward; altogether 220 households were sampled in this study. Access to water was estimated using Water poverty index (WPI) computed after Sullivan and Meigh [2006] using household data; based on 5 sub-components: resources, accessibility, capacity, uses and environment. Resources was seen to be high generally, with highest in Omu Aran ward I (93 %), accessibility was highest in Oro I (71 %), capacity was generally weak (highest score was 43 % in Omu Aran II), uses was highest in Omu Aran II and in Oko, environment was highest in Ipetu-Rore-Aran Orin ward (63 %.).Water poverty index (WPI) was least (47 %) in Oko ward, while the highest (62 %) was obtained at Ipetu-Rore-Aran Orin ward. Only 2 LGAs namely: Oko and Arandun wards are water poor, all other wards have above average scores. However, the seemingly high scores are mainly due to the relatively high mean annual rainfall (MA R) and the efforts of Community Based Associations (CBA) which is typical of Kwara south senatorial districts of Kwara state which has long history of CBAs and Town Unions dating back into about 100years. Hence, there is need for government and public-private intervention in water provision; particularly in Oko and Arandun wards in view of their low capacities and few sources of water as locals will have low capacities to explore alternative sources of water. Conclusively, access to water in Irepodun LGA is appreciably high. However, the challenges of increasing population and urbanization suggest needs for expanding water resources infrastructures in the LGA.
95-117 269
Abstract
Methods and results of social vulnerability and risk assessment are presented in the article. It is explored if modified methodology of the United Nations University (World risk index) can be used on different scale levels: regional, municipal and settlement. It was estimated that, despite the low value of the World risk index for Russia, southern coastal and mountain regions have high values of the risk index for hydrological phenomena because of higher frequency of the hazardous events, higher population density, and high social vulnerability. The Krasnodar region (in the south-western part of Russia) was chosen for a detailed analysis. A municipal risk index was developed, and municipal districts in the Kuban river
mouth were identified as territories with the highest risk. For verification of the index results, the percentage of vulnerable people was estimated based on opinion polls. The results can be used in further risk calculation for other hazardous phenomena.

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)