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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 7, No 1 (2014)

GEOGRAPHY

5-15 226
Abstract
The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains (GSM), located in the central East Antarctica, were discovered by the Soviet team of the 3rd Complex Antarctic Expedition in 1958-1959. The GSM has highly dissected Alpine topography reaching maximum elevations of 3000 m. The mechanism driving uplift of the young-shaped GSM in the middle of the old East Antarctic Shield is unknown. With only limited constraints available on the topography, geology, and lithospheric structure, the origin of the GSM has been a matter of considerable speculation. The latest interpretation suggested that the GSM were formed during Permian and Cretaceous (roughly 250-100 Ma ago) due to the combination of rift-flank uplift, root buoyancy and the isostatic response. Later on the Antarctic Ice Sheet covered the range and protected it from erosion. However, this theory cannot explain lack of erosion process during many millions years in between uplifting and beginning of glaciation. The next step of the GSM exploration focuses on the direct observation of ice sheet bed by drilling. In order to penetrate into subglacial bedrock in the GSM region the development activity already has been started in China. It is proposed to use cable-suspended drilling technology and movable drilling shelter that can be transported to the chosen site with crawler-tractor. The first field tests of the drilling equipment are planned to carry out near Antarctic coast in season 2015-2016, and drilling to the bedrock would be finished during next two seasons.
16-29 240
Abstract
We present a multi-archival mean annual quantitative temperature reconstruction for Northeastern Europe covering the period of the past two millennia based on tree-ring, pollen, and historical data. This reconstruction was developed primarily to build up a comparative chronology of climatic and historical events in the study region. Five different calibration and verification approaches were used. A comparison of mean decadal temperature reconstruction for Northeastern Europe with those for larger regions and the Hemisphere shows that larger climatic events were visible both in the whole Northern Hemisphere and its separate regions. Less significant climatic events on a regional level may differ considerably from the overall climate signature on the hemispheric level. Highest pre-industrial mean annual temperatures in AD 981-990 were 1,0°C warmer and lowest in AD 1811-1820 were 1,3°C colder than average in AD 1951-1980. The new reconstruction shows much higher degree of variability as compared to Panarctic and hemispheric reconstructions.
30-38 164
Abstract
Dans le cadre de l’analyse d’un territoire sur le plan géophysique, et dans le but d’en identifier les ressources naturelles, de nombreuses informations sont acquises. Il s’agit de classifier, caractériser, et interpréter des mesures obtenues par campagnes de navigation sismique, par carottage, acquises dans des puits de forage, ou encore par campagnes de prélèvement d’échantillons. La problématique qui accompagne cette analyse de territoire concerne d’une part la gestion des données complexes et volumineuses dans leurs lieux de stockage. D’autre part la question de l’aide à l’interprétation est posée lorsqu’il s’agit de classifier et comparer de la manière la plus automatique possible ces représentations et caractérisations du territoire. Dans ce contexte ont été développés la méthodologie et les programmes LAC (Logiciel Automatique de Comparaisons).L’un des mécanismes mis en place dans cette méthodologie concerne l’interaction entre un système de filtrage à tamis de critères de comparaison et un système de seuillage pour définir une résolution de comparaison et de regroupement. Cette résolution représente un élément clé de l’analyse car elle permet de détecter des zones d’interfaçage, de frontière, ou de changement de milieu, tout en qualifiant un caractère plus ou moins progressif de ces frontières. Après une première description de la méthodologie LAC, nous voyons de quelle manière elle s’applique aux données de géosciences et comment on peut la décliner sur le plan géographique.
39-51 192
Abstract
The morphostructure of the region is a natural result of active geodynamics in the eastern Stanovoe Upland. Extreme seismic conditions become apparent in rare devastating earthquakes (up to 10-11 in the Mercally scale), as well as in frequent slight ones. Seismic events affect topography and produce seismic deformations of different scale and morphology. Areal disturbances (like the New Namarakit Lake in the South-Muya Mountains origin) and, more often, local deformations (like destructions of the Kodar ridge rocky saddles or clamms [gorges] opening) are evident. Using morphotectonic analysis methods the morphostructural scheme of the Kodar-Udocan section of the Baikal rift zone (perhaps pull-apart basin) is done. In our model piedmont and mountain territories are divided in five level groups of blocks. Neotectonic movements’ amplitude is estimated at 5000 m.

ENVIRONMENT

52-65 305
Abstract
This paper presents a geochemical assessment of the primary involvement of chemical elements in technogenesis in the world and individual countries. In order to compare the intensity of production of various chemical elements in different countries, the authors have introduced a number of new terms and parameters. The new term is “abstract rock” (AR) - an elemental equivalent, whose average composition corresponds to the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust. The new parameters are: “conditional technophility of an element” (TY), “specific technophility” (TYN) “regional conditional technophility” (TYR), “specific regional technophility” (TN), and “density of regional conditional technophility” (TS). TY equals to the tons of AR per year necessary for the production of the current level of the element. TY of different elements has been estimated for 2008-2010. The highest TY values are associated with C, S, N, Ra, and Au. TY of many micro- and ultramicroelements is of the order of n•1011t. TYN reflects the volume of AR per the world’s capita. TYN changes from the 1960s to 2010 indicates that the Earth’s population is growing much faster than its demand for many chemical elements. TYR, TN, and TS were used for the integrated assessment of technogenesis at the regional scale; they reflect the intensity of the technogenesis process at the level of individual countries and allow comparing countries with different levels of elements production, population, and areas. The TN and TS levels of the leaders in extraction of natural resources are below these values in other countries due to the large territories (Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Mali, Libya, Mongolia, and Sudan), to the large population (Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nigeria), or to both high spatial and demographic dimensions (India, Brazil, France, Egypt, Thailand, Pakistan, Algeria, Tanzania, Congo (Kinshasa), Malaysia, and Morocco).
66-79 216
Abstract
We present here the results of spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fish. et May.) tree-ring research in the Tien Shan Mountains, Kirgiz Republic. We explore the connection between climatic parameters and spruce ring width and maximum density at the upper and lower tree limits and provide two reconstructions: the May-August temperature reconstruction from 1626 to 1995 based on a multi-site composite maximum density chronology from the upper tree limit and the drought index reconstruction from 1680 to 2000 based on the lower tree limit regional ring width chronology. The ring width chronologies from the upper and lower tree limits show a strong similarity. They both depend to a large extent on moisture availability. The maximum density chronology does not correlate with them: it depends on different climatic parameters, namely on the summer temperature. The correlations of the reconstructions with CRU TS3 temperature and precipitation grid point data confirm the results of the modeling using the meteorological data from the nearest stations. The 20th century does not look unusual in the context of the last three hundred years in the Tien Shan Mountains, either in terms of the drought occurrence and severity or in summer temperature changes. However the reconstruction does not encompass the last decade when the summer warming in Tine Shan has been especially prominent. In contrast, some change in precipitation is indicated with the 19th century being drier in the Issyk Kul region compared to the 20th century.
80-98 235
Abstract
Geological-and-tectonic and physiographical features of the South American Pacific coast caused high intensity of morpholitogenesis including disaster-like way of some geomorphologic processes. Their complex, interaction, and intensity of conductive factors increase the risk of disaster. The Andean terrain morphology and rock lithology, precipitation type, and vegetation status are the main drivers that influence the character and high potential intensity of the geomorphologic processes. The enormous hydrometeorological events, frequent seismic shocks, volcanic eruptions, and human impact cause disasters development. A schematic map of disaster and hazardous processes for the Central sector of Andes was compiled. 16 areas with different spectra of the dominant catastrophic processes were identified. The South American Andes extension allows drawing out principles of geomorphologic disasters of these continental marginal mountains in various natural zones - from temporal to subequatorial latitudes, which are characterized by the individual unique heat-moisture rate, which governs both typical and extreme geomorphologic processes. An important feature of the study area is the asymmetric distribution of geomorphologic processes within coastal and inland slopes of the mountain system, as well as latitudinal zoning of this distribution.

SUSTAINABILITY

99-108 289
Abstract
The paper presents the concept and approaches to the creation of a special interdisciplinary Atlas of Greater Altai. The main objective of the Atlas is to ensure the maximal possible access of the international community to reliable, current, and accurate spatial information on the transboundary Greater Altai region. The paper discusses the preconditions that facilitate the development of this unique cartographic product, the main sections of its structure (nature, history, and culture), and the main themes of its maps. The paper demonstrates the need for geoinformation support and a web-based version of the GIS-based Atlas. The Atlas can be used indecision-making in the scope of the international cross-border cooperation in the Altai region.

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)