Preview

GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

Advanced search

GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2014-7-1-52-65

Full Text:

Abstract

This paper presents a geochemical assessment of the primary involvement of chemical elements in technogenesis in the world and individual countries. In order to compare the intensity of production of various chemical elements in different countries, the authors have introduced a number of new terms and parameters. The new term is “abstract rock” (AR) - an elemental equivalent, whose average composition corresponds to the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust. The new parameters are: “conditional technophility of an element” (TY), “specific technophility” (TYN) “regional conditional technophility” (TYR), “specific regional technophility” (TN), and “density of regional conditional technophility” (TS). TY equals to the tons of AR per year necessary for the production of the current level of the element. TY of different elements has been estimated for 2008-2010. The highest TY values are associated with C, S, N, Ra, and Au. TY of many micro- and ultramicroelements is of the order of n•1011t. TYN reflects the volume of AR per the world’s capita. TYN changes from the 1960s to 2010 indicates that the Earth’s population is growing much faster than its demand for many chemical elements. TYR, TN, and TS were used for the integrated assessment of technogenesis at the regional scale; they reflect the intensity of the technogenesis process at the level of individual countries and allow comparing countries with different levels of elements production, population, and areas. The TN and TS levels of the leaders in extraction of natural resources are below these values in other countries due to the large territories (Russia, USA, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Argentina, Bolivia, Venezuela, Colombia, Zambia, Mali, Libya, Mongolia, and Sudan), to the large population (Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Nigeria), or to both high spatial and demographic dimensions (India, Brazil, France, Egypt, Thailand, Pakistan, Algeria, Tanzania, Congo (Kinshasa), Malaysia, and Morocco).

About the Authors

Nikolay S. Kasimov
Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation


Dmitry V. Vlasov
Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation


References

1. Bityukova V.R. (2010) Evolution of regional structure of ecological situation in Russia 1990-2008. Ecology and industry of Russia, N 10, pp. 4-7 (in Russian with English summary).

2. Bityukova V.R., Kasimov N.S. (2012) Atmospheric pollution of Russia’s cities: Assessment of emissions and immissions based on statistical data. Geofizika, Vol. 29, N 1, pp. 53-67.

3. Bityukova V.R., Kasimov N.S., Vlasov D.V. (2011) Environmental portrait of Russian cities. Ecology and industry of Russia, N 4, pp. 6-18 (in Russian with English summary).

4. Bityukova V.R., Kirillov P.L. (2011) Methods of complex estimation of the regional defferences under the ecological stress in Russia. Regional studies, N 2 (32), pp. 56-69 (in Russian with English summary).

5. Böhringer C., Jochem P. (2007) Measuring the immeasurable - A survey of sustainability indices. Ecological Economics, Vol. 63, Iss. 1, pp. 1-8.

6. Bradshaw C.J.A., Giam X., Sodhi N.S. (2010) Evaluating the relative environmental impact of countries. PLoS ONE, Vol. 5, Iss. 5, e10440.

7. Butterman W.C., Brooks W.E., Reese R.G. Jr. (2004) Mineral Commodity Profiles. Cesium [online]. USGS, Open-File Report 2004-1432. Available from: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1432/2004-1432.pdf [Accessed 02.12.2012].

8. Butterman W.C., Reese R.G. Jr. (2003) Mineral Commodity Profiles. Rubidium [online]. USGS, Open-File Report 03-045. Available from: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2003/of03-045/of03-045.pdf [Accessed 02.12.2012].

9. Clarke F.W. (1889) The relative abundance of the chemical elements. Phil. Soc. Washington Bull., XI, pp. 131-142.

10. CRC Practical Handbook of physical properties of rocks and minerals (1989). Edited by R.S. Carmichael. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 741 p.

11. Denier van der Gon H.A.C., Visschedijk A.J.H., van der Brugh H., Droge R., Kuenen J. (2009) A Base year (2005) MEGAPOLI European Gridded Emission Inventory [online]. MEGAPOLI Project Scientific Report 09-02, MEGAPOLI Deliverable Report D1.2. Available from: http://megapoli.dmi.dk/publ/MEGAPOLI_sr09-02.pdf [Accessed 17.06.2013].

12. Esty D.C., Andonov B., Kim C., Townsend J., Srebotnjak T., Campbell K., Li Q., Zhang B., Goodall M., Gregg K., Martinez M., Levy M., de Sherbinin A., Anderson B., Saltelli A., Saisana M., Nardo M., Dahl A. (2005) Environmental sustainability index [online]. Environmental Performance Measurement Project. Available from: http://www.yale.edu/esi/ [Accessed 17.06.2013].

13. Glazovskiy N.F. (1976) Technogenic migration of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur on USSR territory. Vestnik Mosk. un-ta, Ser. 5, Geogr., N 4, pp. 32-44 (in Russian).

14. Glazovskiy N.F., Glazovskaya M.A. (1981) Environmental geochemistry and regional geography, pp. 104-120. In: Issues of Geography. Regional Geography: condition and tasks. Vol. 116. Moscow: Mysl’ (in Russian).

15. Goldschmidt V.M. (1933) Grundlagen der quantitativen Geochemie. Fortschr. Mineral. Kirst. Petrogr., N 17, pp.112. (in German).

16. Greenwood N.N., Earnshaw A. (1997) Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1600 p.

17. Grigoriev N.A. (2009) Chemical element distribution in the upper continental crust. Ekaterinburg: Ural Branch of RAS, 382 p. (in Russian with English summary).

18. Emsley J. (1991) The Elements. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 251 p.

19. Environmental, chemistry & hazardous material news, careers & resources (2012) [online]. Environmental chemistry. Available from: http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/periodic/ [Accessed 02.12.2012].

20. Fersman A.E. (1934) Geochemistry. Leningrad: Khimteoret, 354 p. (in Russian).

21. Haxel G.B., Hedrick J.B., Orris G.J. (2002) Rare Earth Element - Critical resources for High Technology [online]. USGS, Fact Sheet 087-02. Available from: http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs087-02/fs087-02.pdf [Accessed 02.12.2012].

22. International energy statistics (2012). U.S. Energy Information Administration [online]. Available from: http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm [Accessed 02.12.2012].

23. International minerals statistics and information (2012). U.S. Geol. Surv. [online]. Available from: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/ [Accessed 02.12.2012].

24. Kapitza S.P. (1999) Essay on the theory of human population growth: how many people lived, lives and will live on the Earth. Moscow: Nauka, 239 p. (in Russian).

25. Kasimov N.S., Vlasov D.V. (2012) Technophility of chemical elements in the beginning of the 21st century. Vestnik Mosk. un-ta, Ser. 5, Geogr., N 1, pp. 15-22 (in Russian with English summary).

26. Key world energy statistics (2012). International Energy Agency [online]. Available from: http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/stat/12/kwes.pdf [Accessed 02.12.2012].

27. Mineral commodity summaries (2012). U.S. Geol. Surv. [online]. Available from: http://mine-rals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/ [Accessed 02.12.2012].

28. Nriagu J.O., Pacyna J.M. (1988) Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature, Vol. 333, pp. 134-139.

29. Pacyna J.M., Pacyna E.G. (2001) An assessment of global and region emissions of trace metals to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources worldwide. Environmental Reviews, N 9, pp. 269-298.

30. Perel’man A.I. (1975) Landscape geochemistry. Moscow: Vyshaja Shkola, 342 p. (in Russian).

31. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Reference Manual (2012). IPCC [online]. Available from: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.html [Accessed 02.12.2012].

32. Rudnick R.L., Gao S. (2003) Composition of the continental crust. In: Treatise on geochemistry. Vol. 3: The Crust. Edited by H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian. Elsevier Science, pp. 1-64.

33. The world factbook (2012). CIA [online]. Available from: https://www.cia.gov/library/pu-blications/the-world-factbook/ [Accessed 02.12.2012].

34. The world market of noble gases. (2012) New chemical technologies. Analytical portal of chemical industry [online]. Available from: http://www.newchemistry.ru/printletter.php?n_id=7855 [Accessed 02.12.2012] (in Russian).

35. Tikunov V.S., Tsapuk D.A. (1999) Sustainable development of territories: cartographic and GIS support. Moscow-Smolensk: Izd-vo SGY, 176 p. (in Russian).

36. Vinogradov A.P. (1962) The average content of chemical elements in the main types of igneous rocks of the Earth crust. Geochemistry, N 7, pp. 555-571 (in Russian).

37. Yang X.-Y., Sun W.-D., Zhang Y.-X., Zheng Y.-F. (2009) Geochemical constraints on the genesis of the Bayan Obo Fe-Nb-REE deposit in Inner Mongolia, China. Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, N 73, pp. 1417-1435.


For citation:


Kasimov N.S., Vlasov D.V. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL INDEXES OF PRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2014;7(1):52-65. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2014-7-1-52-65

Views: 152


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)