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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 4, No 4 (2011)

GEOGRAPHY

4-9 171
Abstract
The article deals with finding optimal ways to measure the level of Human Development in Russia’s regions. In the past, it was common to measure the level of regional development by the Gross Regional Income indicator. Nowadays, we shifted to more “humanized” indicators of regional development. The Human Development index is one of them. A way to improve methods of calculating this index to reflect the closest to reality situation is suggested.
10-23 126
Abstract
The article describes the evolution and the crisis of the rural old-developed non-black soil zone (i.e., Nechernozemye), the differences between suburban and peripheral areas as exemplified by the Kostroma and other regions, basic models of economic contraction, as well as prospects for revival by urban residents.
24-47 149
Abstract
In this paper we provide an overview of the main causes of death in the province of Rome in 1981 and 2007, showing the most relevant variations which have been recorded over time. Using ArcGIS 9.2 software, we have drawn up several medical-geographical thematic maps and specific land use maps which corroborate the temporal and spatial analysis, and which provide suggestions about the relation between causes of death and certain risk factors. Particular attention is given to the diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms which caused, respectively, 38.4% and 32.6% of deaths in 2007 and which followed substantially different trends. Then, we focus on the city of Rome, where we examine the evolution of land use between 1980 and 2001 in order to investigate, by means of detailed screening, the changes recorded in a city where, in 2007, 67% of the inhabitants of Rome province lived.

ENVIRONMENT

48-56 193
Abstract
The present work highlights the different aspects of human perception of environment, specific characteristics of the subjective estimation of its state and attitudes to environmental quality. The authors claim more scientific awareness for the understanding of the motivations determining human behavior during interaction with the environment and knowledge about the objective functional system “perception—action” as part of complex geoecological analyses. Furthermore the populations view on the further development of the landscape to improve its living conditions etc. is a crucial part of this concept.
57-75 416
Abstract
Jiaozhou Bay is a semi-closed embayment, affected by anthropogenic factors around Qingdao, China. This article illustrates the long-term change in the Bay and its catchment using the driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) approach. Under the Chinese national macro-socioeconomic policy, rapid development and massive urbanization occurred in Qingdao that has resulted in the serious reduction and quality deterioration of its arable land and the variation in water resources. The production and consumption pattern changed with population growth and an increasing demand for water and food as well as pollutants emissions. The pressure alteration in the Bay and its catchment has created far-reaching impacts on the ecosystem. These changes include: significant deterioration in water quality of the catchment; decreased river runoff into the bay; shift in the nutrient regime of the Bay; decreased tidal prism in the Bay; increased eutrophication in the Bay; fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of biodiversity. Relevant policies aimed to formulate the promotion of the water quality have been done in the system. However, the deterioration trend has not yet been halted or reversed. Hence new management mechanisms are under discussion to improve the ecosystem in this area.
76-83 121
Abstract
The paper presents approaches to quantitative and spatial assessment of emergency environmental risks at new sites of pulp and paper production using mathematical statistics, probability theory, and cartographic modeling. Damage assessment is based on the type and sphere (atmosphere, soil, and underground and surface waters) of impact. Although damage assessment considers governmentally approved methodology, the formula suggested for the assessment contains some suitable improvements. In addition, a brief characterization of technological process at pulp and paper plants provides objective substantiation of possible accident scenarios. Conclusions discuss economic and social benefits of pulp and paper plants versus their ecological disadvantages.

Sustainability

84-97 129
Abstract
A concept of zoning that addresses Natural and Man-made Disaster Security (NMDS) is proposed. NMDS’s features and factors used in regional divisions are discussed. The system of factors and the level of their influence are described. The nature, principles, criteria, and indicators for appropriate zoning are determined. Ukraine’s territory is described from the standpoint of NMDS considering spatial differences and the level of population security, economic facilities, and natural ecosystems in respect to negative impacts of natural and technogenic character. Features and dynamics of NMDS of Ukraine from the regional division perspective and natural and technogenic hazards to the regions are shown. Prospects of social geography theory and methodology in the development of the foundations of NMDS are provided. A socio-geographical mechanism of NMDS for the regions is presented. Goals and key directions of its implementation are defined. A system of methods and implementation measures of socio-geographical mechanism of NMDS is proposed. The organizational and management structure of NMDS of Ukraine at different hierarchical territorial levels, particularly at the regional level, is identified. The system of organization and management of environmental monitoring and detection of human, financial, and material reserves is necessary in prevention and minimization of negative impacts of natural and manmade disasters.
98-118 152
Abstract
The aim of the work is to determine the criteria of the marine shallow-water ecosystem stability using the Northern region of the Caspian Sea as a case study. For each 260 reference points, we received data on 76 parameters, including physical-geographical, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological characteristics that have been analyzed by the method of principle components. The analyzes of these data allowed us to reveal and evaluate principal geoecological factors that influence the distribution of Acipenseridae in the Caspian Sea as a top level of the ecosystem’s trophic chain. The main geoecological factors and the factor of anthropogenic load of the Caspian Sea ecosystems’ stability have been determined.
119-124 195
Abstract
The strategic location of Tunisia and its rich farmlands attracted many waves of settlers whose presence has contributed to an ethnic and cultural mix of peoples. Berbers, Numidians, Phoenicians / Carthaginians, Romans, Byzantines, Normans, Arabs, Spaniards, Sicilians, Maltese, Turkish and French were all involved in this small territory. This has led to geographical names in Tunisia to be a mixture of different languages and undergo several linguistic changes. Those toponyms in addition to the historical depth of Tunisia they recall, they witness the age and memory of the country and constitute a cultural heritage passed on from one generation to another through the ages. The toponym Carthage / Byrsa is an example. Its origin is the subject of several interpretations, the most common is that related to the legendary history of the founding of the city Carthage-Byrsa by the Phoenician princess Elyssa.

NEWS AND REVIEWS

125-131 85
Abstract
A LIFE IN SCIENCE WHICH IS LIFE ITSELF
On the 80th anniversary of Academician V.M. Kotlyakov
132-137 102
Abstract
FRIDTJOF NANSEN
(on the 150th anniversary of his birth)


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)