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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 7, No 2 (2014)

GEOGRAPHY

4-12 197
Abstract
We studied the change of forestland in the Central Russian Upland within the deciduous forest, forest-steppe, and steppe zones using old maps (XVIII-XX cc.) and current satellite images. The forest distribution within the Central Russian Upland has been relatively stable during the last 220 years. On average, the decrease in the forested area was small. However, we identified significant changes in certain regions. In the southern part of CRU, the significant increase of the forested land is caused by the forest protection of abatis woodland and afforestation. During the last 100 years, reforestation took place mainly in the Oka basin due to both afforestation and natural reforestation. New forests appeared generally in ravines within all zones. The analysis of the abatis forests changes from the XVIII to XX cc. allowed us to identify forested area within the Central Russian Upland prior to active development.

ENVIRONMENT

13-48 450
Abstract
The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary, global change research initiative focusing on understanding biosphere-ocean-cryosphere-climate interactions and feedbacks in Arctic and boreal regions in the Northern Eurasian geographical domain. PEEX operates in an integrative way and it aims at solving the major scientific and society relevant questions in many scales using tools from natural and social sciences and economics. The research agenda identifies the most urgent large scale research questions and topics of the land-atmosphere-aquatic-anthropogenic systems and interactions and feedbacks between the systems for the next decades. Furthermore PEEX actively develops and designs a coordinated and coherent ground station network from Europe via Siberia to China and the coastal line of the Arctic Ocean together with a PEEX-modeling platform. PEEX launches a program for educating the next generation of multidisciplinary researcher and technical experts. This expedites the utilization of the new scientific knowledge for producing a more reliable climate change scenarios in regional and global scales, and enables mitigation and adaptation planning of the Northern societies. PEEX gathers together leading European, Russian and Chinese research groups. With a bottom-up approach, over 40 institutes and universities have contributed the PEEX Science Plan from 18 countries. In 2014 the PEEX community prepared Science Plan and initiated conceptual design of the PEEX land-atmosphere observation network and modeling platform. Here we present the PEEX approach as a whole with the specific attention to research agenda and preliminary design of the PEEX research infrastructure.
49-70 216
Abstract
The origin of the massive ice is important for understanding the Quaternary history of the Yamal region and to predict the occurrence of massive ice, which is important for gas exploration and the development of infrastructure. Massive ice bodies occur in the Bovanenkovo gas field area within sediments such as layers, laccoliths, rods and lenses. Maximal thickness of the tabular ice is 28,5 m; mean thickness is about 8 m. Deposits of the third terrace underlying and overlapping the tabular ice had been formed from 25 ka BP to 20 ka BP, according to 14C dates. Oxygen-isotope values (δ18О) of massive ices are ranged from 12, 49‰ up to -22, 95‰. Deuterium (δD) values vary from -91, 7‰ up to -177, 1‰. Deuterium excess (dexc) changes from 3, 4 to 10, 6‰. Both homogenous and contrast distribution δ18О and (δD) vs. depths in massive ice bodies evidences the segregated and/or infiltrated-segregated manner of ice formation. Pollen, spores and algae spectra from ice are similar to pollen characteristics of modern lacustrine and coastal floodplain sediments in the area. The ingression of cold seawaters on a coastal flood plain caused freezing and ice segregation, with the formation of extensive ice layers under the large but shallow lakes. As a result, syngenetic and genetically heterogeneous ice, such as: segregated, infiltrated-segregated, lake bottom congelation ice etc. was formed.
71-85 215
Abstract
The paper contains the analysis of long-term measurements of erythemally weighted UV-radiation (Qer) at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University over the 1999-2013 period. Main features of seasonal variability of Qer as well as the Qer dependence on different geophysical parameters are studied. We showed that the average annual Qer attenuation due to cloudiness, total ozone content, and aerosols, is about 29, 30%, and 7%, respectively. The maximal loss of Qer due to cloudiness is observed in November (48%), while ozone-dependent attenuation is maximal in February-March (44%). We used the original technique to assess the UV-radiation impact on human health in Moscow. Specifically, we have identified the UV potential for the erythema formation and synthesis of vitamin D in humans with different skin types. The UV-deficiency conditions are observed for all considered skin types (1-4) during all days from November to February. The probability of the UV-optimum conditions for different skin types was assessed. It was shown, for example, that for skin type 2, the UV-optimum conditions are dominant from March to April and from September to October (maximum in September - 60%). We have also identified the periods with UV-excess conditions. For skin type 2, these conditions may exist from April to August.

Sustainability

86-95 357
Abstract
Satoyama is a Japanese term for landscapes that comprise a mosaic of different ecosystems which include forests, agricultural lands, grassland irrigation ponds and human settlements aimed at promoting viable human nature interaction. The Japanese government is seeking to revitalize it locally and promote it internationally, receiving accreditation as UNESCO Satoyama Initiatives. Here we explore the dynamics of this system and how it can be used as a model for any intended agricultural development in indigenous communities globally. In this paper we strongly address sustainable agriculture development which takes into consideration the local culture and traditions which exists.

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)