Advanced search


Full Text:


The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary, global change research initiative focusing on understanding biosphere-ocean-cryosphere-climate interactions and feedbacks in Arctic and boreal regions in the Northern Eurasian geographical domain. PEEX operates in an integrative way and it aims at solving the major scientific and society relevant questions in many scales using tools from natural and social sciences and economics. The research agenda identifies the most urgent large scale research questions and topics of the land-atmosphere-aquatic-anthropogenic systems and interactions and feedbacks between the systems for the next decades. Furthermore PEEX actively develops and designs a coordinated and coherent ground station network from Europe via Siberia to China and the coastal line of the Arctic Ocean together with a PEEX-modeling platform. PEEX launches a program for educating the next generation of multidisciplinary researcher and technical experts. This expedites the utilization of the new scientific knowledge for producing a more reliable climate change scenarios in regional and global scales, and enables mitigation and adaptation planning of the Northern societies. PEEX gathers together leading European, Russian and Chinese research groups. With a bottom-up approach, over 40 institutes and universities have contributed the PEEX Science Plan from 18 countries. In 2014 the PEEX community prepared Science Plan and initiated conceptual design of the PEEX land-atmosphere observation network and modeling platform. Here we present the PEEX approach as a whole with the specific attention to research agenda and preliminary design of the PEEX research infrastructure.

About the Authors

Hanna K. Lappalainen
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Tuukka Petäjä
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Joni Kujansuu
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Veli-Matti Kerminen
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Anatoly Shvidenko
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria
Russian Federation

Jaana Bäck
Dept of Forest Ecology University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Timo Vesala
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Timo Vihma
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Gerrit De Leeuw
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Antti Lauri
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Taina Ruuskanen
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Vladimir B. Lapshin
Russian Federation

Nina Zaitseva
Department of Earth Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Russian Federation

Olga Glezer
Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Mikhail Arshinov
Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Russian Federation

Dominick V. Spracklen
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Russian Federation

Steve R. Arnold
School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Russian Federation

Sirkku Juhola
Dept.of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Heikki Lihavainen
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Yrjö Viisanen
Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Natalia Chubarova
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Sergey Chalov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Nikolay Filatov
Northern Water Problems Institute, Karelian Research Center of RAS (NWPI)
Russian Federation

Andrey Skorokhod
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Nikolay Elansky
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Egor Dyukarev
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia
Russian Federation

Igor Esau
Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center / Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
Russian Federation

Pertti Hari
Dept of Forest Ecology University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation

Vladimir Kotlyakov
Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Nikolay Kasimov
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Valery Bondur
AEROCOSMOS Research Institute for Aerospace Monitoring, Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation

Gennady Matvienko

Russian Federation

Alexander Baklanov
World Meteorological Organization, Genève, Switzerland; Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
Russian Federation

Evgeny Mareev
Dept. of Radiophysics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Russian Federation

Yuliya Troitskaya
Dept. of Radiophysics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Russian Federation

Aijun Ding
Institute for Climate and Global Change Research & School of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nanjing, China
Russian Federation

Huadong Guo
Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Russian Federation

Sergej Zilitinkevich
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Dept. of Radiophysics, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Russian Federation

Markku Kulmala
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Russian Federation


1. Alapaty, K., Mathur, R., Pleim, J., Hogrefe, Ch., Rao, S. T., Ramaswamy, V., Galmarini, S., Schaap, M., Vautard, R., Makar, P., Baklanov, A., Kallos, G., Vogel, B., and Sokhi, R.(2012). New Directions: Understanding Interactions of Air Quality and Climate Change at Regional Scales. Atmos. Environ., 49, 419-421.

2. AMAP, 2011: The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate (2011). By: P.K. Quinn, A. Stohl, A. Arneth, T. Berntsen, J. F. Burkhart, J. Christensen, M. Flanner, K. Kupiainen, H. Lihavainen, M. Shepherd, V. Shevchenko, H. Skov, and V. Vestreng.2014, Volume 454, Issue 2, pp 158-162.

3. Anisimov, O.A. (2009). Sytochastic modelling of the active layer thickness under conditions of current and future climate. Kriosfera Zemli 13(3), 36-4.

4. Arctic Council (2009), Arctic Maritime Shipping Assessment 2009.

5. Arneth, A., Harrison, S. P., Zaehle, S., Tsigaridis, K., Menon, S., Bartlein, P. J., Feichter, J., Korhola, A., Kulmala, M., O’Donnell, D., Schurgers, G., Sorvari, S., & Vesala, T. (2010) Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nature Geoscience, 3(8), 525-532. 10.1038/ngeo905.

6. Bäck, J., Aaltonen, H., Hellen, H., Kajos, M. K., Patokoski, J., Taipale, R., Pumpanen, J., Heinonsalo, J. (2010) Variable emissions of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) from root-associated fungi isolated from Scots pine. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 3651-3659. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.06.042.

7. Baklanov, A.A., V.V. Penenko, A.G. Mahura, A.A. Vinogradova, N.F. Elansky, E.A. Tsvetova, O.Yu. Rigina, L.O. Maksimenkov, R.B. Nuterman, F.A. Pogarskii, and A.Zakey (2012) Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution in Siberia. Chapter 8. In: P.Ya. Groisman, G. Gutman (Eds.) Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences, Springer, ISBN 978-94-007-4568-1, pp. 303-346.

8. Bityukova, V.R. and Kasimov, N.S. (2012) Atmospheric pollution of Russia’s cities: assessment of emissions and immissions based on statistical data // GEOFIZIKA. Vol. 29. 2012. P. 53-67.

9. Bondur, V.G, (2010) Importance of Aerospace Remote Sensing Approach to the Monitoring of Nature Fire in Russia // International Forest Fire News (IFFN) No. 40 (July-December 2010), p. 43-57.

10. Bondur, V.G. (2011) Satellite Monitoring and Mathematical Modelling of Deep Runoff Turbulent Jets in Coastal Water Areas, Waste Water - Evaluation and Management, ISBN: 978-953-307-233-3, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/16134.

11. Bondur, V.G. (2011) Satellite Monitoring of Wildfires during the Anomalous Heat Wave of 2010 in Russia // Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2011, Vol. 47, No. 9, pp. 1039-1048.

12. Browse, J., Carslaw, K. S., Arnold, S. R., Pringle, K., and Boucher, O. (2012) The scavenging processes controlling the seasonal cycle in Arctic sulphate and black carbon aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6775-6798, doi:10.5194/acp-12-6775-2012, 2012.

13. Buchwitz, M., M. Reuter, O. Schneising, H. Boesch, S. Guerlet, B. Dils, I. Aben, R. Armante, P. Bergamaschi, T. Blumenstock, H. Bovensmann, D. Brunner, B. Buchmann, J.P. Burrows, A. Butz, A. Chédin, F. Chevallier, C.D. Crevoisier, N.M. Deutscher, C. Frankenberg, F. Hase, O.P. Hasekamp, J. Heymann, T. Kaminski, A. Laeng, G. Lichtenberg, M. DeMazière, S. Noël, J. Notholt, J. Orphal, C. Popp, R. Parker, M. Scholze, R. Sussmann, G.P. Stiller, T. Warneke, C. Zehner, A. Bril, D. Crisp, D.W.T. Griffith, A. Kuze, C. O’Dell, S. Oshchepkov, V. Sherlock, H. Suto, P. Wennberg, D.Wunch, T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida (2013). The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Comparison and quality assessment of near-surface-sensitive satellite-derived CO2 and CH4 global data sets. Remote Sensing of Environment (2013).

14. Buermann et al. (2014) Recent shift in Eurasian boreal forest greening response may be associated with warmer and drier summers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1995-2002.

15. Burrows, J.P., Platt, U. and Borrell, P. (2011) The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space, 536 pp., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011. ISBN: 978-3-642-14790-6 doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14791-3., pp. 315-364.

16. Cannon A.J., Whitfield P.H., Lord E.R. (2002) Synoptic map pattern classification using recursive partitioning and principal component analysis. Monthly Weather Review, 130, 1187-1206.

17. CBACCI, 2003: CBACCI education structure. Annex of the Steering Committee memorandum of the meeting 5.5.2003 in Oslo.

18. Chalov Sergey R., Jarsjö Jerker, Kasimov N., Romanchenko A., Pietron Jan, Thorslund J., Belozerova E. (2014) Spatiotemporal variation of sediment transport in the Selenga River Basin, Mongolia and Russia DOI: 10.1007/s12665-014-3106-z.

19. Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O. and Warren, S. G. (1987). «Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate». Nature 326 (6114): 655-661.

20. Christensen, T. R., Johansson, T. Ö., Jonas Åkerman, H., Mastepanov, M., Malmer, N., Friborg, T., Crill, P.; Svensson, B. H. (2004) Thawing sub-arctic permafrost: Effects on vegetation and methane emissions. Geophysical Research Letters 31 (4): L04501.

21. Сhubarova N., Smirnov, А., Holben, B.N. (2011b) Aerosol properties in Moscow according to 10 years of AERONET measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University //Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 4, 1, 19-32.

22. Сhubarova, N.Y., M.A. Sviridenkov, A. Smirnov, and B.N. Holben. (2011a) Assessments of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow and its radiative effects, Atmos. Meas. Tech., N 4, pp. 367-378, doi:10.5194/amt-4-367-2011.

23. Chubarova, N., Zhdanova Ye. (2012) Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Elsevier BV (Netherlands), v. 127, p. 38-51.

24. De Leeuw, G., Holzer-Popp, T., Bevan, S., Davies, W., Descloitres, J., Grainger, R. G., Griesfeller, J., Heckel, A., Kinne, S., Klüser, L., Kolmonen, P., Litvinov, P., Martynenko, D., North, P. J. R., Ovigneur, B., Pascal, N., Poulsen, C., Ramon, D., Schulz, M., Siddans, R., Sogacheva, L., Tanré, D., Thomas, G. E., Virtanen, T. H., von Hoyningen Huene, W., Vountas, M., & Pinnock, S. (2013). Evaluation of seven European aerosol optical depth retrieval algorithms for climate analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment. 10.1016/j.rse.2013.04.023.

25. de Leeuw, G., S. Kinne, J.F. Leon, J. Pelon, D. Rosenfeld, M Schaap, P.J. Veefkind, B. Veihelmann, D.M. Winker and W. von Hoyningen-Huene (2011) Retrieval of aerosol properties. In: Burrows, J.P., U. Platt and P.Borrell (Editors) The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space, 536 pp., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011. ISBN: 978-3-642-14790-6 doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14791-3., pp. 359-313.

26. Ding, A.J. , Fu, C.B,Yang, X.Q., Sun, J.N., Peteja, T., Kerminen, V.-M., Wang, T., Xie, Y.N., Herrmann, E. Zheng, L.F., Nie, W., Liu, Q., Wei, X.L., and Kulmala, M. (2013): Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossile fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phy., 13, 10545-10554.

27. Dolman, A. J., Shvidenko, A., Schepaschenko, D., Ciais, P., Tchebakova, N., Chen, T., van der Molen, M. K., Belelli Marchesini, L., Maximov, T. C., Maksyutov, S., and Schulze, E.-D. (2012): An estimate of the terrestrial carbon budget of Russia using inventory-based, eddy covariance and inversion methods, Biogeosciences, 9, 5323-5340, doi:10.5194/bg-9-5323-2012, 2012.

28. Duch, B. J., Groh, S. E. and Allen, D. E. (2001). The Power of Problem-Based Learning. Stylus Publishing, Sterling, VA, U.S.A.

29. Elansky N.F., Mokhov I.I., Belikov I.B., Berezina E.V., Elokhov A.S., Ivanov V.A., Pankratova N.V., Postylyakov O.V., Safronov A.N., Skorokhod A.I., Shumskii R.A. (2011) Gaseous admixtures in the atmosphere over Moscow during the 2010 summer. Izvestiya. Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics. V. 47. N 6. p. 672-681.

30. Elansky, N. F., O. V. Lavrova, A. A. Rakin, A. I. Skorokhod. (2014) Anthropogenic disturbances of the atmosphere in Moscow region. Doklady Earth Sciences, Volume 454, Issue 2, pp 158-162.

31. Elmendorf, S. C., Henry, G. H. R., Hollister, R. D., & Björk, R. G. (2012). Plotscale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming. Nature Climate Change. Journal Article 2, pp. 453-457.

32. Esau, I., R. Davy and S. Outten (2012): Complementary explanation of temperature response in the lower atmosphere, Environmental Research Letters, 7, 044026.

33. Galloway et al. (2003); SEE REFERENCE IN IPCC CHAPTER 6.

34. Glezer O.B. (2007b). The Development of the North Abroad: Experience and Lessons // Environmental Planning and Management, no 4 (5), pp. 62-76. (in Russian).

35. Glezer O.B. (2007a).Population and Its Settlement Pattern. In: Space, Population, and Economics of Yugra. Socioeconomic Transformation of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug / Artobolevsky S.S., Glezer O.B.(Eds.). M., Ekonomist, pp.169-191. (in Russian).

36. Goncharuk, VV., V.B. Lapshin, M.A. Chichaeva, A.O. Samsoni-Todorov, V.V. Taranov, I.S. Matveeva, G.N. Chikviladze, T.V. Grebennikova, S.S. Pletenev, and A.V. Syroeshkin. (2012) The System of the Efficient Monitoring of Air Quality in Maritime Cities and Health Resort Areas: Pollution of the Nearwater Layer of the Atmosphere with Sea Aerosols// Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology. Vol. 34, No. 2. P. 79-80.

37. Goncharuk, VV., V.B. Lapshin, M.A. Chichaeva, I.S. Matveeva, A.O. Samsoni-Todorov, V.V. Taranov, and A.V. Syroezhkin. (2012) Heavy Metals, Aluminium, and Arsenic in Aerosols of the World Ocean // Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology. Vol. 34, No.1. - P. 1-10.

38. Gray P. A. (2000).Chukotka reindeer husbandry in the post-socialist transition, Polar Research, 19 (1), pp. 31-37.

39. Groisman, P.Ya., Blyakharchuk, T.A., Chernokulsky, A.V., Arzhanov, M.M., Beleli Marchesini L., Bogdanova, E.G. et al. (2013b) Climate change in Siberia. In P.Ya. Groisman, G. Gutman (Eds.) Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences, Springer, pp. 1-17.

40. Groisman, P.Ya., Gutman G., Shvidenko, A.Z., Bergen, K.M., Baklanov, A.A., Stackhouse, P.W. Jr. (2013a) Introduction: Regional features of Siberia. In P.Ya. Groisman, G. Gutman (Eds.) Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences, Springer, pp. 1-17.

41. Grote R, Niinemets Ü. (2008) Modeling Volatile Isoprenoid Emissions - A Story with Split Ends. Plant Biology 10: 8-28.

42. Hari, P., Andreae, M. O., Kabat, P. & Kulmala, M. (2009): A comprehensive network of measuring stations to monitor climate change. Boreal Env. Res. 14: 442-446.

43. Hennessy, S. and Murphy, P. (1999) The Potential for Collaborative Problem Solving in Design and Technology, International Journal of Technology and Design Education 9(1), pp. 1-36.

44. Hiyama T. and Inoue G. (2010). Global Warming and the Human-Nature Dimension in Siberia In: Natural resources development, population and environment in Russia: Their Present and Future in Relation to Japan. Proceeding of the second Russian-Japanese seminar. September 13-14, 2010, Moscow. pp. 8-13.

45. Hollmann, R., Merchant, C. J., Saunders, R., Downy, C., Buchwitz, M., Cazenave, A., Chuvieco, E., Defourny, P., de Leeuw, G., Forsberg, R., Holzer-Popp, T., Paul, F., Sandven, S., Sathyendranath, S., van Roozendael, M., & Wagner, W. (2013). THE ESA CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE Satellite Data Records for Essential Climate Variables. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(10), 1541-1552. 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00254.1.

46. Holzer-Popp, T., de Leeuw, G., Griesfeller, J., Martynenko, D., Klüser, L., Bevan, S., Davies, W., Ducos, F., Deuzé, J. L., Graigner, R. G., Heckel, A., von Hoyningen-Hüne, W., Kolmonen, P., Litvinov, P., North, P., Poulsen, C. A., Ramon, D., Siddans, R., Sogacheva, L., Tanre, D., Thomas, G. E., Vountas, M., Descloitres, J., Griesfeller, J., Kinne, S., Schulz, M., and Pinnock, S. (2013) Aerosol retrieval experiments in the ESA Aerosol_cci project, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1919-1957, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1919-2013.

47. Huadong, G. (2013) “Earth Observation in China and the World: History and Development in 50 Years”, Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Vol.27 No.2.

48. IPCC 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker T.F., Qin D., Plattner G.-K. , Tignor M., Allen S.K., Boschung J., Nauels A., Xia Y., Bex V. & Midgley P. M. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

49. IPCC 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In Climate Change. 2013. In pHysical Science Basis.

50. IPCC 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

51. Istomina, L. G., von Hoyningen-Huene, W., Kokhanovsky, A. A., Schultz, E., & Burrows, J. P. (2011) Remote sensing of aerosol over snow using infrared AATSR observations. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 4, 1133-1145.

52. Junninen, H., Lauri, A., Keronen, P., Aalto, P., Hiltunen, V., Hari, P. and Kulmala, M. (2009) Smart-SMEAR: on-line data exploration and visualization tool for SMEAR stations. Boreal Env. Res. 14, 447-457.

53. Kasimov N.S. (2013). Landscape Ecogeochemistry. M.: Filimonov. 208 p.

54. Kasimov N.S., Chalov S. R. & Panin A. V. (2013): Multidisciplinary field training in undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian experience, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, Volume 37, Issue 3, 416-431, DOI:10.1080/03098265.2013.794331.

55. Kerr, R.A. (2012) Ice-Free Arctic Sea May be Years, Not Decades, Away. Science 337: 1591. Bibcode:2012Sci..337.1591K.

56. Kokhanovsky, A.A., and G. de Leeuw (Editors) (2009) Satellite Aerosol Remote Sensing Over Land. Springer-Praxis (Berlin). ISBN 978-3-540-69396-3, 388 pp.

57. Kokhanovsky, A.A., S. Platnick and M.D. King (2011) Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Clouds from Space using Backscattering and Thermal Emission Techniques. In: Burrows, J.P., U. Platt and P.Borrell (Editors) The Remote Sensing of Tropospheric Composition from Space, 536 pp., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011. ISBN: 978-3-642-14790-6 doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-14791-3., pp. 231-257.

58. Kulmala M, Tuomo Nieminen, Anna Nikandrov, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hanna Manninen, Maija K. Kajos, Pasi Kolari, Antti Lauri, Tuukka Petäjä, Radovan Krejci, Hans-Christen Hansson, Erik Swietlicki, Anders Lindroth, Torben R. Christensen, Almut Arneth, Pertti Hari, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vesala and Veli-Matti Kerminen CO2 induced terrestrial climate feedback mechanism: From carbon sink to aerosol source and back. BER in press.

59. Kulmala M., Alekseychik P., Paramonov M., Laurila T., Asmi E., Arneth A., Zilitinkevich S. & Kerminen V.-M. (2011). On measurements of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases in Siberia and future research needs. Boreal Env. Res. 16: 337-362.

60. Kulmala, M. et al. (2011a) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13061.

61. Kulmala, M. et al. (2011b) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10791.

62. Kulmala, M., & Petaja, T. (2011). Soil Nitrites Influence Atmospheric Chemistry. Science, 333, 1586-1587. 10.1126/science.1211872 01.

63. Kulmala, M., Asmi, A., Lappalainen, H. K., Carslaw, K. S.,P¨oschl, U., Baltensperger, U., Hov, Ø., Brenquier, J.-L., Pandis, S. N., Facchini, M. C., Hansson, H.-C., Wiedensohler, A., and O’Dowd, C. D.(2009): Introduction: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) - integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2825-2841, doi:10.5194/acp-9- 2825-2009, 2009.

64. Kulmala, M.,T. Suni, K. E. J. Lehtinen, M. Dal Maso, M. Boy, A. Reissell, Ü. Rannik, P. Aalto, P. Keronen, H. Hakola, J. Bäck, T. Hoffmann, T. Vesala, and P. Hari (2004). A new feedback mechanism linking forests, aerosols, and climate. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 557-562.

65. Kuzminov I.F. (2011). Socio-Economic Challenges to Timber Industry in North-European Part of Russia (Case-Study of the Kostroma Oblast) // Regional Research of Russia, 2011, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 41-51.

66. Lenton, T. M., H. Held, E. Kriegler, J. W. Hall, W. Lucht, S. Rahmstorf, and H. J. Schellnhuber. (2008). Tipping elements in Earth’s climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:1786-1793.

67. Lihavainen, H., V. Kerminen, P. Tunved, V. Aaltonen, A. Arola, J. Hatakka, A. Hyvärinen, and Y. Viisanen (2009), Observational signature of the direct radiative effect by natural boreal forest aerosols and its relation to the corresponding first indirect effect, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D20206, doi:10.1029/2009JD012078.2009.

68. Litvinenko T.V. (2012). Socioecological Consequences of Transformation of Natural Resources Utilization in Russia’s Eastern Part in Post-Soviet Period // Regional Research of Russia, 2012, vol. 2, no 4, pp. 284-295.

69. Litvinenko T.V. (2013) Post-Soviet Transformation of Natural Resources Utilization and its Impact on Population Dynamics in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug //Izvestiya of Russian Academy of Sciences, Geography, 2013, no 2: pp. 30-42. (in Russian).

70. Lombardozzi, D., Levis, S., Bonan, G., and Sparks, J. P. (2012) Predicting photosynthesis and transpiration responses to ozone: decoupling modeled photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, Biogeosciences, 9, 3113-3130, doi:10.5194/bg-9-3113-2012, 2012.

71. Malkhazova, S. M., Mironova, V. V., Kotova, T. V., Shartova N. V., Orlov D. S. (2013) Natural Focal Diseases in Russia: Monitoring and Mapping, Geography. Environment. Sustainability, No 4, p. 4-12.

72. Malkhazova, S. M., Rumyantsev, V. Yu, Soldatov, M. S., Leonova, N. B., Kislov, A. V. (2012a) Forecasted trends in changes of vegetation in European part of Russia in connection witn global warning, Geography, environment, sustainability, v. 4, No 5, p. 4-16.

73. Malkhazova, S.M. & Shartova, N.V. (2012b) The Health of the Moscow Region Population at the End of the 19 - Beginning of the 21st Centuries. Regional Research of Russia, v. 2, No 2, p. 149-159.

74. Mauldin L.,T. Berndt, M. Sipilä, P. Paasonen, T. Petäjä, S. Kim, T. Kurtén, F. Stratmann, V.-M. Kermi nen & M. Kulmala (2012) A new atmospherically relevant oxidant of sulphur dioxide, Nature 488, 193-196.

75. MEGAPOLI (2011) Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation. MEGAPOLI project Final Report, September 2011, 43 pp.

76. Mei, L., Xue, Y., De Leeuw, G., von Hoyningen-Huene, W., Kokhanovsky, A. A., Istomina, L., Guang, J., & Burrows, J. P. (2013). Aerosol optical depth retrieval in the Arctic region using MODIS data over snow. Remote Sensing of Environment, 128, 234-245. 10.1016/j.rse.2012.10.009.

77. Mei, L., Xue, Y., Kokhanovsky, A. A., von Hoyningen-Huene, W., Istomina, L., De Leeuw, G., Burrows, J. P., Guang, J., & Jing, Y. (2013). Aerosol optical depth retrieval over snow using AATSR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(14), 5030-5041. 10.1080/01431161.2013.786197.

78. Melillo, J.M, Steudler, P.A, Aber, J.D, Newkirk, K., Lux, H., Bowles, F.P., Catricala, C., Magill, A., Ahrens, T. and Morrisseau, S. (2002) Soil warming and carbon-cycle feedbacks to the climate system. Science, 298, pp. 2173-2176.

79. Meybeck M, Vörösmarty CJ (2005) Fluvial filtering of land to ocean fluxes: from natural Holocene variations to Anthropocene. Comptes Rendus 337: 107-123.

80. Mijling, B. and R. van der A, Using daily satellite observations to estimate emissions of short-lived air pollutants on a mesoscopic scale. J. Geophys. Res. 117, D17, doi:10.1029/2012JD017817, 2012.

81. Monks, S.A., et al., (2014), Multi-model study of chemical and physical controls on transport of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution to the Arctic, to be submitted.

82. Nordic Climate Change Research (2009) Nord Forsk Policy Briefs 2009-8. Mandag Morgen, 2009.

83. Official web site of the project “Global Warming and the Human-Nature Dimension in Siberia: Social Adaptation to the Changes of the Terrestrial Ecosystem, with an Emphasis on Water Environments”, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan. Access date: April 28, 2013.

84. Paasonen P. Pauli Paasonen, A.Asmi, T.Petäjä, M.K. Kajos, M.Äijälä, H.Junninen, T.Holst, J.P. D. Abbatt, A. Arneth, W.Birmili, H. Denier van der Gon, A.Hamed, A. Hoffer, L. Laakso, A.Laaksonen, W. R. Leaitch, C. Plass-Dülmer, S. C. Pryor, P. Räisänen, E. Swietlicki, A. Wiedensohler, D. R. Worsnop, V-M. Kerminen, M. Kulmala (2013) Warming-induced increase in aerosol number concentration likely to moderate climate change, Nature Geoscience 6,438-442.

85. Pankratova N.V., Elansky N.F., Belikov I.B., Lavrova O.V., Skorokhod A.I., Shumsky R.A. Ozone and nitric oxides in the surface air over Northern Eurasia according to observational data obtained in Troica experiments. Izvestiya. Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics. (2011). v. 47. N 3. p. 313-328.

86. Paramonov M., Lauri A., Sylvius V., Kulmala M. (2011). Approaches for multidisciplinary research-oriented studies by means of joint programmes: cases, experiences and successes. In Proceedings of International Symposium on Integrating Research, Education, and Problem Solving (IREPS), Orlando, FL, USA, pp. 231-235.

87. Piao S, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, P. Peylin, M. Reichstein, S. Luyssaert, H. Margolis, J. Fang, A. Barr, A. Chen, A. Grelle, D.Y. Hollinger, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, A.D. Richardson and T. Vesala (2008): Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming. Nature 451, pp. 49-53.

88. Quinn P.K&T.S Bates, (2011)The case against climate regulation via oceanic phytoplankton sulphur emissions, Nature 480, 51-56.

89. Regional Development and Regional Policy of Russia in the Transition Period (2011) Artobolevsky S.S., Glezer O.B.(Eds.). M., Izdatelstvo Bauman MGTU. 317 p. (in Russian).

90. Remote Sensing of Environment (2013),

91. Rustad LE, Campbell JL, Marion GM, Norby RJ, Mitchell MJ, Hartley AE, Cornelissen JHC, Gurevitch J, GCTE-NEWS. (2001). A meta analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia 126, pp. 543-562.

92. Schepaschenko, D.G., McCallum, I., Shvidenko, A., Fritz, S., Kraxner, F., Obersteiner, M. (2010). A new hybrid land cover dataset for Russia: a methodology for integrating statistics, remote sensing and in-situ information. Journal of Land Use Science, 6(4), pp. 245-259. doi:10.1080/1747423X.2010.511681.

93. Scott, C. E., Rap, A., Spracklen, D. V., Forster, P. M., Carslaw, K. S., Mann, G. W., Pringle, K. J., Kivekas, N., Kulmala, M., Lihavainen, H., & Tunved, P. (2014). The direct and indirect radiative effects of biogenic secondary organic aerosol. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(1), 447-470. 10.5194/acp-14-447-2014.

94. Shindell, D. T., Chin, M., Dentener, F., Doherty, R. M., Faluvegi, G., Fiore, A. M., Hess, P., Koch, D. M., MacKenzie, I. A., Sanderson, M. G., Schultz, M. G., Schulz, M., Stevenson, D. S., Teich, H., Textor, C., Wild, O., Bergmann, D. J., Bey, I., Bian, H., Cuvelier, C., Duncan, B. N., Folberth, G., Horowitz, L. W., Jonson, J., Kaminski, J. W., Marmer, E., Park, R., Pringle, K. J., Schroeder, S., Szopa, S., Takemura, T., Zeng, G., Keating, T. J., and Zuber, A. (2008) A multi-model assessment of pollution transport to the Arctic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, pp. 5353-5372, doi:10.5194/acp-8-5353-2008.

95. Shvidenko, A. (2012) Forest resources and climate change. In “The Russian Federation Forest Sector. Outlook Study to 2030”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. - P. 47-50.

96. Shvidenko, A., Gustafson, E., McGuire, A.D., Kharuk, V.I., Schepaschenko, D.G., Shugart, H.H., Tchebakova, N.M., Vygodskay, N.N., Onuchin, A.A., Hayes, D.J., McCallum, I., Maksyutov, S., Mukhortova, L.V., Soja, A.J., Belelli-Marchesini, L., Kurbatova, J.A., Oltchev, A.V., Parfenova, E.I., Shuman, J.K. (2013). Terrestrial ecosystems and their change, in: Groisman, P.Y., Gutman, G. (Eds.), Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Consequences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 171-249.

97. Shvidenko, A.Z. and Schepaschenko, D.G. (2013b) Carbon Budget of Russian forests. Siberian Journal of Forest Science, No 1, 69-92.

98. Shvidenko, A.Z., Schepaschenko, D.G., (2013a) Climate change and wildfires in Russia. Contemp. Probl. Ecol. 6, 683-692. doi:10.1134/S199542551307010X.

99. Sitch, S., Cox, P. M., Collins, W. J., and Huntingford, C. (2007) Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink, Nature, 448, pp. 791-794.

100. Smedsrud L.H., I. N. Esau, R. B. Ingvaldsen, T. Eldevik, P. M. Haugan, C. Li, V. Lien, A. Olsen, A. Omar, O.H. Otterå, B. Risebrobakken, A.B. Sandø, V. Semenov and S.A. Sorokina, (2013): The role of the Barents Sea in the Arctic climate system, Reviews of Geophysic , 51, doi:10.1002/rog.20017, pp 1-35.

101. Smith, L. (2010) The New North- the World in 2050. 102. Spracklen, D.V., Bonn, B., Carslaw, K.S. (2008) Boreal Forests, Aerosols and the Impacts on Clouds and Climate, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 366, doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0201.

102. Spracklen, D.V., Mickley, L.J., Logan, J.A., Hudman, R.C., Yevich, R., Flannigan, M.D., Westerling, A.L. (2009). Impacts of climate change from 2000 to 2050 on wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in the western United States, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D20301, doi:10.1029/2008JD010966.

103. Stjernberg, A., Skorokhod, A., Paris, J., Elansky, N., Nédélec, P., & Stohl, A. (2012). Low concentrations of near-surface ozone in Siberia. Tellus B, 64. doi:10.3402/tellusb.v64i0.11607.

104. Stohl, A., Klimont, Z., Eckhardt, S., Kupiainen, K., Shevchenko, V. P., Kopeikin, V. M., and Novigatsky, A. N. (2013): Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, pp. 8833-8855, doi:10.5194/acp-13-8833-2013.

105. Tchebakova, N.M., Rehfeldt, G.E., Parfenova, E.I. (2010). Vegetaion zones to climate types: effects of climate warming on Siberian ecisystems. In A. Osawa, O.A. Zyranova, y. Matsura et al. (Eds) Permafrost Ecosystems: Siberian larch forests. Springer, Berlin, pp. 427-447.

106. The European Higher Education Area. Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education. Convened in Bologna on the 19th of June, 1999.

107. Tingley M. P. and Huybers P. (2013). Recent temperature extremes at high northern latitudes unprecedented in the past 600 years. Nature, 496, pp. 201-205.

108. Tomasi, C., A.A. Kokhanovsky, A. Lupi, C. Ritter, A. Smirnov, N.T. O’Neill, R.S. Stone, B.N. Holben, S. Nyeki, C. Wehrli, A. Stohl, M. Mazzola, C. Lanconelli, V. Vitale, K. Stebel, V. Altonen, G. de Leeuw, E. Rodriguez, A.B. Herber, V.F. Radionov, T. Zielinski, T. Petelski, S.M. Sakerin, D.M. Kabanov, Y. Xue, L.-L Mei, L. Istomina, R. Wagener, B. McArthur, P.S. Sobolewski, R. Kivi, Y. Courcoux, P. Larouche, S. Broccardo and S.J. Piketh (2014). Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions, Submitted to Earth Science Reviews on 15 April 2014.

109. Troitskaya Y., Galina Rybushkina, Irina Soustova, Galina Balandina, Sergey Lebedev, Andrey Kostianoy (2012). Adaptive retracking of Jason altimetry data for inland waters: the example of the Gorky Reservoir. International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 7559-7578.

110. Tunved P., H.-C. Hansson, V.-M. Kerminen, J. Ström, M. Dal Maso, H. Lihavainen, Y. Viisanen, P. P. Aalto, M. Komppula, M. Kulmala (2006) High Natural Aerosol Loading over Boreal Forests, Science 14 April 2006: Vol. 312 no. 5771 pp. 261-263 DOI: 10.1126/science.1123052.

111. Vesala T., Launiainen S., Markkanen T., Kulmala M., Aarflot A., Hämeri K. and Lauri A. (2008). E-learning as a teaching tool in international education programmes and recent experiences from CBACCI project. Report Series in Aerosol Sci., 92, pp. 215-218.

112. Walther G.R. et al., (2002), Nature, 416, pp. 389-395.

113. Wespes, C., Emmons, L., Edwards, D. P., Hannigan, J., Hurtmans, D., Saunois, M., Coheur, P.-F., Clerbaux, C., Coffey, M. T., Batchelor, R. L., Lindenmaier, R., Strong, K., Weinheimer, A. J., Nowak, J. B., Ryerson, T. B., Crounse, J. D., and Wennberg, P. O. (2012) Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, pp. 237-259, doi:10.5194/acp-12-237-201.

114. WMO/IGAC (2012) WMO-IGAC report: Impact of Megacities on Air Pollution and Climate. GAW Report No. 205, WMO.

115. WMO-GAW (2009) WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Strategic Plan: 2008 - 2015. WMO TD NO. 1384, GAW Report No. 172, 104 p.

116. Zhang, Y., Mao, H., Ding, A.J., Zhou, D.R., and Fu, C.B.(2013) Impact of synoptic weather patterns on spatio-temporal variation in surface O3 levels in Hong Kong during 1999-2011, Atmos. Environ., 73, 41-540.

117. Zhou, D.R., Ding, A.J., Mao, H.T., Fu, C.B., Wang, T., Chan L.Y., Ding, K., Zhang, Y., Liu J., and Hao, N. (2013): Impact of East Asian monsoon on lower tropospheric ozone over coastal South China: Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 044011.

118. Zilitinkevich S.S. (2012): The Height of the Atmospheric Planetary Boundary layer: State of the Art and New Development - Chapter 13 in “National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change”, edited by H.J.S. Fernando, Z. Klaić, J.L. McKulley, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series-C: Environmental Security (ISBN 978-94-007-2429-7), Springer, pp. 147-161.

119. Zilitinkevich, S., Esau, I. and Baklanov, A. (2007). Further comments on the equilibrium height of neutral and stable planetary boundary layers. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 133, pp. 265-271.

120. Zilitinkevich, S.S., and Esau, I.N. (2009). Planetary boundary layer feedbacks in climate system and triggering global warming in the night, in winter and at high latitudes. Geography, Environment, Sustainability 1, No. 2, pp. 20-34.

121. Zilitinkevich, S.S., Elperin, T., Kleeorin, N., Rogachevskii, I., Esau, I.N. (2013). A hierarchy of energy- and flux-budget (EFB) turbulence closure models for stably stratified geophysical flows. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 146, pp. 341-373.

122. Zimov, S., Davydov and S., Zimova, G. (2006). Permafrost carbon: Stock and a decomposability of a globally significant carbon pool. Geopys. Res. Letter, 33, L20502, doi:10.1029/2006GL027484.

For citation:

Lappalainen H.K., Petäjä T., Kujansuu J., Kerminen V., Shvidenko A., Bäck J., Vesala T., Vihma T., De Leeuw G., Lauri A., Ruuskanen T., Lapshin V.B., Zaitseva N., Glezer O., Arshinov M., Spracklen D.V., Arnold S.R., Juhola S., Lihavainen H., Viisanen Y., Chubarova N., Chalov S., Filatov N., Skorokhod A., Elansky N., Dyukarev E., Esau I., Hari P., Kotlyakov V., Kasimov N., Bondur V., Matvienko G., Baklanov A., Mareev E., Troitskaya Y., Ding A., Guo H., Zilitinkevich S., Kulmala M. PAN EURASIAN EXPERIMENT (PEEX) - A RESEARCH INITIATIVE MEETING THE GRAND CHALLENGES OF THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT OF THE NORTHERN PAN-EURASIAN ARCTIC-BOREAL AREAS. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2014;7(2):13-48.

Views: 281

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)