Preview

GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

Advanced search

IMPACT OF THE AMBIENT AIR PM2.5 ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES OF ULAANBAATAR RESIDENTS

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2015-8-4-35-41

Full Text:

Abstract

Mongolia is a landlocked country with a total land area of 1,564,116 square kilometers. The ambient annual average particulate matter (PM) concentration in Ulaanbaatar is 10–25 times greater than the Mongolian air quality standards (AQS). More than 40 percent of the nation’s total population lives in Ulaanbaatar. The study aims at defining the relationship between the ambient air PM2.5 level and hospital admissions in Ulaanbaatar in 2011–2014. The pollution data included a 24-hour average PM2.5. The
air was sampled daily and recorded by the national air monitoring stations located in Ulaanbaatar. The sampling frame of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD)
were the records of all outpatient hospitals of Ulaanbaatar. The data covered the period
from January 2011 to January 2014. To test the differences of the results, appropriate
statistical tests were employed. During 2011–2014, the highest concentration of PM2.5 was in the coldest period and the particulate matter level recorded was 3.7 times higher in the cold period than the warm period. The number of admissions for CVD were the highest during cold periods. Four days after exposure, the PM2.5 impact on hospital admissions weakened but there remained a positive correlation. For PM2.5, 100 μg/m3 growth of the pollutant led to 0.65 % increase in the hospitalization for CVD on the exposure day. On the second day of exposure, 10 μg/m3 growth of the pollutant led to 0.66 % increase; on the third day of exposure, 10 μg/m3 growth of the pollutant led to 0.08 % increase of hospital admissions for CVD, and at the fourth day, such growth led to 0.6 % increase of CVD cases in 2011–2014 in Ulaanbaatar. In conclusion we may state that most incidences of CVD registered during the cold months in Ulaanbaatar in the last four years were a result of PM2.5 exposure. This shows that the PM2.5 exposure and hospital admissions for cardiovascular system chronic diseases are positively correlated. CVD in Ulaanbaatar residents was affected greater on the same and the third day of exposure.

About the Authors

Altangerel Enkhjargal
Ach Medical University
Mongolia


Badrakhyn Burmaajav
Mongolian Academia of Medical Sciences
Mongolia


References

1. Bremner, S.A., Anderson, H.R., Atkinson, R.W., McMichael, A.J., Strachan, D.P., Bland, J.M., et al (1999) Short term associations between outdoor air pollution and mortality in London 1992–4. Occup Environ Med 56: 237–244.

2. CNAP, MOEGD, SICA (2014), Registration of stationary air pollutants, Ulaanbaatar, p. 25.

3. Delgerzul, L. (2013), Air particular matter (PM10 and PM2.5) influences to human health, master thesis, Ulaanbaatar.

4. Dockery, D.W. Pope, C.A. III (1994). Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annu Rev Public Health 15: 107–132.

5. Enkhjargal A.B., Suvd B., Burmaa B., Enkhtsetseg Sh. (2010), Health impact assessment of PM10 and PM2.5 of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Journal of Medical Sciences, 4: 154–161.

6. Godish, T. (2004), Air quality, 4th edition. Boca Raton, USA: Lewis Publishers.

7. Ha, E.H., Hong, Y.C., Lee, B.E., Woo, B.H., Schwartz, J., Christiani, D.C. (2001). Is air pollution a risk factor for low birth weight in Seoul? Epidemiology 12: 643–648.

8. Mongolian national standard, (2008) Mongolian air quality standard, Ulaanbaatar.

9. PHI, MOH (2003) Hygienic assessment of some chemical, physical and biological risk factors to human health, Ulaanbaatar.

10. PHI, MOH (2003) Hygienic assessment of some chemical, physical and biological risk factors to human health, Ulaanbaatar.

11. Pope C.A. III, Burnett R.T., Thun M.J., Calle E.E., Krewski D., Ito K., Thurston G.D. (2002). Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2002; 287 (9): 1132–1141.

12. Public health institute, Ministry of Health, World Health Organization, (2007), Indoor air quality survey, Ulaanbaatar.

13. Statistical department of UB (2015), available online at: http://ubstat.mn/StatTable.aspx?tableID = 20, 15 October 2015.

14. World Bank (2009), Mongolia – Air pollution in Ulaanbaatar: Initial assessment of current situation and effects of abatement measures (Mongolian), Ulaanbaatar, p. 35–52.


For citation:


Enkhjargal A., Burmaajav B. IMPACT OF THE AMBIENT AIR PM2.5 ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES OF ULAANBAATAR RESIDENTS. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2015;8(4):35-41. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2015-8-4-35-41

Views: 228


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)