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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 8, No 4 (2015)
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GEOGRAPHY

7-17 169
Abstract
The paper presents the characteristics of the status of public health in the regions of Russia in 2002–2012 conducted considering life expectancy of men and women, as well as infant mortality. Public health trends were identified in comparison with 1990–2001. Five groups
of regions with specific status of public health were isolated and analyzed. Cross-spectrum
analysis of environmental and socio-economic factors was conducted in order to explain the
existing level of mortality of the population.
18-25 188
Abstract
We analyzed, for the first time ever, the geographical distribution of the main allergenic plants in Russia. All materials were organized as database and attached to the map in GIS Mapinfo. For each region of Russian Federation, two indices were calculated: the total number of allergenic plants in the region and the “allergenic index”. A series of maps was
compiled: the number of spring-flowering species, the number of summer-flowering species,
the total number of species flowering during the whole year, the overall allergen danger during spring and summer seasons, respectively, and the overall allergen danger during the whole year. In terms of the number of allergenic species and by the “allergenic index,” the most dangerous regions appeared to be the Ryazan and Voronezh Oblasts, while the less dangerous – the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and the Magadan Oblast. The maps may serve as a reference source for allergologists and allergy sufferers.
26-34 138
Abstract
The paper describes a study that monitored the epidemiological situation of a complex of natural-focal diseases in the Vladimir region (Russia), from 1958 to 2012. The morbidity rates of these natural-focal diseases have been differentiated by territory using ArcView 3.1 (GIS software). The activity of natural foci for each zooanthroponosis varied between administrative districts in the region. A schematic map has been compiled; the map reflects
the danger of infection caused by natural-focal diseases in the Vladimir region. The paper
discusses the role of the anthropogenic factor in natural-ecosystem development: it likely
promotes the transit and localization rates of carriers. Correlation and regression analysis of
the data showed that climatic factors such as the average temperatures in July and September in the preceding year influence Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) patterns. This is likely related to particular stages in the life cycle of Ixodidae ticks. Using multiple linear regression analysis, a mathematical model for the prediction of Lyme borreliosis patterns has been created.

ENVIRONMENT

35-41 181
Abstract
Mongolia is a landlocked country with a total land area of 1,564,116 square kilometers. The ambient annual average particulate matter (PM) concentration in Ulaanbaatar is 10–25 times greater than the Mongolian air quality standards (AQS). More than 40 percent of the nation’s total population lives in Ulaanbaatar. The study aims at defining the relationship between the ambient air PM2.5 level and hospital admissions in Ulaanbaatar in 2011–2014. The pollution data included a 24-hour average PM2.5. The
air was sampled daily and recorded by the national air monitoring stations located in Ulaanbaatar. The sampling frame of hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD)
were the records of all outpatient hospitals of Ulaanbaatar. The data covered the period
from January 2011 to January 2014. To test the differences of the results, appropriate
statistical tests were employed. During 2011–2014, the highest concentration of PM2.5 was in the coldest period and the particulate matter level recorded was 3.7 times higher in the cold period than the warm period. The number of admissions for CVD were the highest during cold periods. Four days after exposure, the PM2.5 impact on hospital admissions weakened but there remained a positive correlation. For PM2.5, 100 μg/m3 growth of the pollutant led to 0.65 % increase in the hospitalization for CVD on the exposure day. On the second day of exposure, 10 μg/m3 growth of the pollutant led to 0.66 % increase; on the third day of exposure, 10 μg/m3 growth of the pollutant led to 0.08 % increase of hospital admissions for CVD, and at the fourth day, such growth led to 0.6 % increase of CVD cases in 2011–2014 in Ulaanbaatar. In conclusion we may state that most incidences of CVD registered during the cold months in Ulaanbaatar in the last four years were a result of PM2.5 exposure. This shows that the PM2.5 exposure and hospital admissions for cardiovascular system chronic diseases are positively correlated. CVD in Ulaanbaatar residents was affected greater on the same and the third day of exposure.
42-53 153
Abstract
The authors have created a geoinformation-analytical system (GIS) for integrated
assessment and mapping of the ecological conditions of the territory according to the criteria of anthropogenic impact and quality of the urban environment, as well as the response of woody plants and the health of the child population (on the example of Voronezh – the largest industrial city of the Central Chernozem region).
It has been identified that anthropogenic pollution is formed by the industrial-transport
sector and varies with regard to the features of the functional planning infrastructure; near the industrial facilities of the petrochemical profile in the left-Bank sector of the city, conditions for the existence of woody plants significantly worsen, which is manifested in the inhibition of their development; child morbidity rate is significantly higher in industrially polluted neighborhoods with high load of pollutant emissions from industry and transport. The diseases primarily associated with pollution are congenital anomalies, neoplasms, endocrine pathology and diseases of the urogenital area.
The industrial zone is the main contributor to the total pollution of air, but the transport zone
is the main contributor to the total pollution of soil and snow cover.

Sustainability

54-63 177
Abstract
The integrated study on environment of typical China’s longevity areas was conducted by using comprehensive methods of health geography. It was found that Chinese longevity areas mainly located in the south China and clustered in Sichuan-Chongqing, Central plain and Southeast region, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta; in which drinking water was of weakly alkaline, Se, Fe, K content was moderate, higher content of Ca, Co, Mn, and low Cr, Cd, Pb; the concentration of trace elements benefit for health in soils and food staples was higher; hair of centenarians had higher Li, Mg, Mn, Ca, Zn content, lower concentration in Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni; healthy centenarians were also benefited from a favorable social environment factors, such as physiological health, psychological state, light meals and higher proportion of vegetables. The study was the first time to reveal quantitatively the relationship between longevity and the natural and human environment, and provided a scientific basis for the promotion of development of China’s longevity area, to achieve the construction of ecological civilization
64-81 347
Abstract
In an urban area, the water is supplied through centralised municipal tap water system. For the present enquiry, the municipal supply of water for drinking and sanitation purposes has been assessed in terms of its availability and accessibility to the people, possible sources of water contamination and related health issues in Kolkata. The relevant data have been accessed from various secondary sources where the published data from West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB) and Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) are noteworthy. The data thus obtained have been assessed qualitatively to depict the ground reality on sanitation and health related issues. The analyses of the data reveal that in Kolkata, the availability of good quality drinking water is not sufficient as the supply is low and inadequate. On the other hand, the underground water which is considered as the alternative source to the people is found to be contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic and lead. The non-availability of sufficient
water for drinking and sanitation purposes and consumption of contaminated water may
result into poor health condition with various water borne diseases. The data on diseases from dispensaries (aided by KMC) in Kolkata has revealed that people with water borne diseases are significant in number where they are found to be affected with diseases like Acute Diarrhoeal Infection and Dysenteries. Some suitable measures have been proposed whereby applying those, the availability and accessibility of water for drinking and proper sanitation could be enhanced and the occurrences of diseases might be avoided.

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)