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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 11, No 4 (2018)
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GEOGRAPHY

5-13 314
Abstract

Tourism is the key factor of human presence in the Arctic region. The number of tourist visits has been growing extensively since the end of XX century. The Arctic region is not regarded only as prospective region for oil and gas industry but now it is also recognized as the region with high potential for tourism development. The research is dedicated to the assessment of the spatial distribution of human presence within the Arctic region on the basis of statistical analysis of population and tourist visits in different parts of the Arctic. Taking into account the uncertainty of regional Arctic borders definition, which are commonly determined in accordance with given purposes and tasks, we assessed the population and tourist visits for the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation as administrative union as well as for the Arctic region as physic-geographical region.

The growing number of tourists in the Arctic region influences future development prospects of the region. In 2017 the Arctic region with population of 4.3 million people was visited by 10.2 million tourist. While the favorable environmental conditions of Arctic ecosystems exist, the Arctic region should be considered as the source of nature resources for tourism and various recreational activities. Modern technologies enable the development of travel industry in the region, and therefore the industrial paradigm of “conquer” and “utilization” should be replaced with the axiological paradigm of “Arctic beauty” and recreational resource value.

14-23 211
Abstract

The model of regional economic development in the Lipetsk region based on the allocation of industry and agriculture production in Special Economic Zones has shown its effectiveness for the development of the whole region. However, this model was helpless to introduce any significant breakthrough changes in the structure of the economy. Currently there has been an attempt to apply the same allocation model to tourism segment objects. It is shown that tourist entities unlike industrial and agricultural have different development imperatives. The main condition for the successful formation and functioning of tourist objects on a territory is their interconnected interaction within a tourist cluster. A tourist cluster can not be created at the only site. Tourist objects of a tourist cluster must be distributed according to tourist destinations and integrated through a well-developed infrastructure in a single functional system. When applying the special economic zone model to a territory it is necessary to make adaptations in accordance to the specifics of the allocated objects. The conclusion is that the application of the same management model for different economy segments needs adjustment. It is also important to distinguish a “Cluster” which is a geographic concentration of interconnected companies and a “Special Economic Zone” which is a territory with economic preferences.

24-38 213
Abstract

In this paper we suggest a formula to evaluate the recreational possibilities of natural recreational systems (NRS). The formula depends on economic activity, accessibility, climate, relief and landscape attraction of unsettled territories. Unsettled territories are consisted with unpopulated areals with different scales and at the most remote points from any infrastructure, the center of unpopulated areals are situated. The aggregate of these unpopulated areas constitutes a natural recreational system - a natural area slightly modified by human economic activities in which recreation can be still carried out.

The formula will allow choosing natural fit territories to develop recreational and tourist activities and create protected natural areas. Evaluation of the Perm region natural recreational system was conducted with the help of this formula. As a result, a map of the Perm region was portrayed on which there are some separate sections of similar NRS qualities. Most part of the region (48%) is at the average level of NRS quality. Only the north-eastern and a few particular sites on hills not affected by economic activities, are up to a high quality level (5%). None of the Perm region reaches the maximum score, due to climate severity and inability to fully use the territory for touristic activities throughout the whole year.

39-55 201
Abstract

The article endeavours to identify and characterise selected national associations of municipalities across Europe, as well as to provide typical models of municipalities being associated into large groups representing their interests in relations with central government. A study that addressed 26 European countries has helped identify four principal organisational models of associations of local structures. These are as follows: (1) the consolidated model (existing in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden), (2) the bipolar model (in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Switzerland), (3) the federative model (in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Spain), and (4) the fragmented model (to be found in France, United Kingdom, Poland, Hungary, and Romania).

ENVIRONMENT

56-66 178
Abstract

In the Himalaya diversity of plant species is very rich in length and breadth of its spatial extent. Study area forms a part of the Central Himalaya where altitude is varying in between 1940m to 2615m. Changing slope aspect and altitude (microclimate) have a close bearing on the distribution of species. Distribution of plant species was identified with the help of quick bird data with detailed goundtruth verification. Whereas, habitat characteristics i.e. altitude and slope aspect are identified using Survey of India topographical map. Finally, the analysis and interpretation part is carried out with the help of GIS software. Study reflects that Cupressus torulusais found above 2190m concentrating in the southern and south eastern slope aspect areas only. However, presence of Quercus Leucotricophorais found everywhere without having any control of altitude and slope aspect. Earlier workers reported that picea smithian (Spruce) growth is limited from 2400m to 3600m. In the Himalayan region but in the study area we found its natural growth in the height of 2005m.

67-84 207
Abstract

According to the the biome concept, the idea of the orobiome and its significance in the evaluation of the biodiversity for mountain territories are disclosed. Altitudinal gradients of vegetation with certain altitudinal limits of development are the basis for analysing the floristic and coenotic diversity of the orobiome and the ecological and geographical patterns of its spatial organization at the regional level. Based on the example from Kodar-Kalar orobiome, an altitudinal composition of the vegetation of the Northern Transbaikalia has been identified using thematic maps. The statistical evaluation of the altitudinal distribution of 4 vegetation belts (the upper tundra belt, the tundra belt, the sub-tundra belt and the mountain taiga belt) has been made. The regional features of the altitude position of the basic vegetation types forming the belts have been determined for the orobiome. They are reflected in three geographical variants. Orographic conditions and the history of the territory development have been discussed in the analysis of regional features of altitudinal spectra difference.

85-99 237
Abstract

The issue of climate change is so critical to the extent that it affects about seventy five percent of Nigerians’ livelihoods. Climate related events such as floods, rainstorms, increasing temperature and droughts among others have been on the increase in the last few years. These have been attributed to both natural and human causes. This study examines the determinants of local people’s understanding of climate change, impacts and coping strategies in some selected rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria with a view to comparing their knowledge with scientific knowledge. Eight rural communities were randomly selected from the State within the area representing more than 80% of the total local district areas. Since rural dwellers engage more in primary activities than any other activities, therefore, respondents were selected from farming, hunting and fishing activities. Participatory Rural Appraisal method with emphasis on group discussion technique and observatory technique were employed to collect data from the participants. Climatic data for two climatic normals were collected from the period 1957 to 1986 and 1987to 2016. Descriptive and inferential tools were used to achieve the stated objectives. The results revealed that local people have their own knowledge of the understanding of the climate change and findings revealed further that the farmers and other primary producers in the studied communities were indeed experiencing climate change variability and impacts. Result of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics showed that the average age of respondents was 41.2 years, 80.64% were married, majority, (61.27%) had farming has their main occupation and mean years of experience of respondents was 24.5 years on farm and in the management of environmental resources. The multiple regression result revealed that gender, primary activities, age, local knowledge, coping strategies were found to increase the understanding of climate change of respondents. Focus Group Discussion showed that the respondents were very much aware of the climate change and there exist early warning mechanisms which they put in place against the future weather events. They have different local coping techniques to mitigate the possible impact. It was therefore recommended that more awareness be created to ensure that people realize the consequences of climate change and integrate the local knowledge with the formal strategies.

100-111 203
Abstract

The soils of Russian Altai highlands were used as a paleoenvironmental archive, as a source of dating material, and as a chronostratigraphic marker to describe Holocene environmental change in the studied area. Based on calibration intervals of 14C dates obtained for buried humus horizons (11 buried soils in 6 studied soil-sedimentary sequences) and some dates from pendants of contemporary soils, following stages of pedogenesis were recorded in studied soil-sedimentary systems and surface soils: 6.4 – 11.5 ky cal BP; about 4.9-5.3 cal BP; 2.5-3.8 cal BP; 0.6 – 1.2 cal BP. All studied surface soils in the basins nowadays develop in cold, ultra-continental water deficit conditions: Skeletic Kastanozems Cambic, Skeletic Cambisols Protocalcic, Skeletic Cambic Calcisol Yermic. The most extreme conditions of soil formation within Holocene were within the last 1-2 kyr. All buried soils were formed in better conditions, more balanced in water, with higher biological activity, mostly within steppe or forest-steppe landscapes. Cryogenic features had been insisting all over the Holocene till nowadays. Water demandant cryogenic features are met in buried soils up to the age of 1-2 ky cal BP. In the last millennia cryogenic processes are suppressed, water demandant features gave way to those which can be formed in contemporary water deficit conditions: simple fissures, frost sorting, and shattering. At lower levels (Kuraj basin) more or less arid cold steppe conditions insisted within the most part of Holocene. Initial stages of soil formation were often ground water affected, or at least shortly waterlogged. At the highest positions humid and relatively warm Early Holocene stage of forest pedogenesis is recorded for the beginning of Holocene, and a Late Holocene (last 3-4 kyr) cold humid phase, presumably under mountain tundra and/or alpines. Microsedimentary intra-soil record in carbonatehumus pendants imprints fine fluctuations of soil water regime at initial stages of soil formation, controlled by local topography, and climatic changes in the second half of Holocene. General trends of environmental changes in the region recorded in soil and soil sedimentary systems are in well correspondence with other records of paleonvironment.

SUSTAINABILITY

112-131 466
Abstract

Through a prospective study, structural issues that move Amazonia’s ecological and cultural complexity and its internationalization are analyzed in this article. Its predatory development in a global context permeated by sustainability is presented. It shows that capitalism has no heuristic reach to economically exploit Amazonia preserving its biomes. It prioritizes issues such as: What are the political foundations that permeate Amazonia’s global economic insertion? What are its links with the scientific and technological processes imbricated in worldwide environmentalism? Many proposals and uncertainties concerning Amazonia’s ecological issues are presented. The environmental and social impacts of the large socioeconomic development projects implemented in the region are shown. Technical elements to clarify the sustainability concept and its correlation with the development of Amazonia are presented and analyzed. Amazonia’s importance for the future of Brazil and the mankind, and the controversies on political and economic issues that impede its economic development are also discussed.

132-143 222
Abstract

Electrification is one of the most crucial factors to ensure social and economic growth in Bangladesh. Being in a developing country, people from various districts of Bangladesh have been experiencing electricity crisis due to the increasing daily demand for power, which outweighs the supply of on-grid electricity. It is noted that about 30 percent of 160 million people, majority living in the rural areas are out of electricity connection in Bangladesh. Consequently, the shortage of energy hampers socioeconomic development and lowers living standards of people. Since, non-renewable sources such as fossil fuels and natural gas, the primary sources of energy production in Bangladesh, are limited, usage of renewable energy technology such as solar energy efficiently can satisfy the rising energy demand and in turn improve the existing energy shortage situation. This study found that Bangladesh has been implementing Solar Home System (SHS) programs that contribute in achieving the target to reach electricity to its every citizen by 2020. As of June 2017 a total of 262,515 households do have solar home systems from which an estimated 1.6 million people are benefitted. This article is written based on a research conducted in the districts of southwest coastal region of Bangladesh where a total of 5.1 million people live of which on an average 42.6 percent are poor and 24.9 percent are extreme poor. In-depth interviews, group discussions, key informant interviews, and household survey were used for collection of data to explore the impacts of SHS on the livelihoods of coastal people of Bangladesh. This research found that impacts of Solar Home System services are both immediate and long-term oriented. SHS program contributes enriching all kinds of livelihoods assets such as human, social, financial and physical of the SHS customers. The poor and extreme poor people of climate vulnerable villages of southwest coastal region of Bangladesh are benefited in different ways from SHS programs such as save daily expenditures for kerosene, doing income generating activities in evening hours by both male and female members of family, children sit for study regularly, women feel safety from lightening of house, they can charge cell phone, they have access to weather forecasting, their social status upgraded, and they save money because they do not need to pay bill for electricity. The SHS is one time investment and they customer can pay for SHS package in installments. As the SHS program approach is environment and poor people friendly, its impacts on livelihoods are found sustainable.



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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)