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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 6, No 4 (2013)

GEOGRAPHY

4-12 197
Abstract
The paper discusses a mapping method for compilation of maps for a medical-geographical Atlas of Russia “Natural Focal Diseases” and potential that this Atlas presents for assessment and monitoring of the epidemiological situation in a number of diseases. A series of analytical, integrated, and synthetic maps shows disease incidence in the population at both the national and regional levels for the last 15 years. The Atlas contains maps of the mean annual incidence of certain infections and maps of incidence dynamics and nosological profiles that allow detailed analysis of the situation for each of 83 subjects of the Russian Federation. The degree of epidemic hazard in Russia by naturally occurring is reflected in a synthetic medical-geographical map that allows one to estimate the risk of a disease manifestation in a given region.
13-18 144
Abstract
The estimation of the area of the territories which are under the threat of flooding is of great importance. The technique, based on a principle of conformity of the area of a floodplain massif, averaged within the part of the river with a particular rank, to this rank has been proposed. The ranks, according to the Scheidegger scheme, were calculated for the mouths of 9907 rivers in the Volga river basin. For 96 rivers of the Volga basin, which has length of more than 200 km, changes of rank within the entire extent were calculated and a map was compiled using the obtained results.
For several rivers in the Volga river basin, change of the average floodplain areas along the rivers was estimated. It allowed establishing dependences between the average floodplain areas and the ranks of the rivers, with higher rank corresponding to bigger floodplain areas.
19-30 208
Abstract
The paper discusses the use of geoinformation technologies in studies of ethnic aspects of urbanization in Russia. It analyzes the level of urbanization, urbanization transition in ethnic groups, and changes in the geography of population settlement of the country with centrographic and other methods.

ENVIRONMENT

31-47 219
Abstract
Means for operational regional forecast of catastrophic weather events in the Black Sea region are presented. It is shown that the flooding in Krasnodar Region, Russia, July 7, 2012 was predicted five days before the tragic events, and the catastrophic storm of November 11, 2007 off the coast of Crimea was also predicted three days in advance. Quality of the regional forecast and its advantages over the global forecast are discussed. The operational regional modeling of the atmosphere in the Marine Hydrophysical Institute (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine) could become an important element of a possible early warning system for weather disasters in the Azov-Black Sea region.
48-64 188
Abstract
The paper investigates the data on the fauna of the European Russia at the end of the XVIII century, contained in the materials of the General Land Survey, in comparison with contemporary data. The distribution ranges of the majority of large mammals observed in the study area two centuries ago, have not changed significantly, but the biological diversity has increased due to the emergence of new species.
65-76 146
Abstract
Russia has more than 2200 reservoirs and large ponds. As time went by, ponds lost their importance in some aspects of human life, while newly created man-made seas impacted the nature and the people in two ways. The costs involved in designing, constructing, and operating the artificial seas, especially on the plains, have been too high to consider them as an undisputed achievement of the Soviet scientists transforming the nature. This paper discusses the problem of ponds and man-made seas in Russia.

Sustainability

77-90 261
Abstract
In north-western China, the endorheic Tarim River is running along the northern rim of the Taklamakan desert. It is the solely water source for the oases in the region as precipitation is low. The river is mainly fed from water of snow and glacier melt, causing floods in the summer months. Due to global climate change the annual water discharge is increasing. However, not sufficient water flows downstream, as the region is the main production area of cotton in China, and much water is needed for irrigation. A conflict arises between water users of the upper reaches and water users of the lower reaches of the Tarim River as well as with the natural vegetation. The central question of the Sino-German SuMaRiO project (Sustainable Management of River Oases) is how to manage land use, i.e. irrigation agriculture and utilization of the natural ecosystems, and water use in a very water-scarce region, with changing water availability due to climate change, such that ecosystem services and economic benefits are maintained in the best balance for a sustainable development. The overall goal of the project is to support oasis management along the Tarim River under conditions of climatic and societal changes by: i) developing methods for analyzing ecosystem functions/ecosystem services, and integrating them into land and water management of oases and riparian forests; ii) Involving stakeholders in the research process to integrate their knowledge and problem perceptions into the scientific process; iii) Developing tools (Decision support system) with Chinese decision makers that demonstrate the ecological and socio-economic consequences of their decisions in a changing world.
91-102 179
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

NEWS AND REVIEWS

103-108 94
Abstract
IGU REGIONAL CONFERENCE IN KYOTO (AUGUST 4–9, 2013)


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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)