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Vol 9, No 1 (2016)
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4-20 331
The functional characteristics of the biosphere are reflected in its binominale frame: continents – oceanic basins. The river-basin land, on the one hand, and pericontinental oceanic waters on the other hand, are the main components of the homeostatic mechanism of the biosphere. In the Archean and Early-Middle Proterozoic, seawater biofiltration did not exist. In the Late Proterozoic and part of the Early Paleozoic, biofiltration started to develop and the oceans have become the main heat-engine of the Earth. Today, the maximum concentration of productive phytoplankton and zooplankton – filter bio-systems – is in the pericontinental oceanic zones. This is a response to the maximal flow of nutrients from the land carried mainly with river flow. This is the main signal of a direct link between terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The feedback is the atmospheric precipitation induced by heat and moisture flows and carried from the oceans to the land within its primary river-basin part. These links are experiencing anthropogenic destabilization due to some misplaced priorities of sustainable development and its implementation.
21-27 209
Mountain glaciers manifest oscillations at different time-scales. Apart from synchronous reaction to lasting changes, there is asynchronism between climatic forcing and observed anomalies of the glaciers. Based on general theories on the laws of temporal dynamics relating to massive inertial objects, the observed interannual changes of glacier length could result from the accumulation of small anomalies in the heat/water fluxes. Despite the fact that the original model of the dynamics of mountain glaciers is deterministically based on the physical law of conservation of water mass, the model of length change is interpreted as stochastic; from this perspective, it is the Langevin equation that incorporates the action of temperature anomalies and precipitation like random white noise. The process is analogous to Brownian motion. Under these conditions, the Grosser Aletschgletscher (selected as an example) is represented by a system undergoing a random walk. It was shown that the possible range of variability covers the observed interval of length fluctuations.
28-46 191
During the 19th and 20th centuries many Italian migrants set out for the Americas, where peoples from other European countries, such as Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, England, Ireland etc. had already established themselves. We have to make a distinction
between the migration typology of North and of South America. In North America the  origin of the migrants was predominantly England and France, while in South America the first migrants were mainly Spanish and Portuguese. Different reasons should explain place names in the United States of America: (i) early presence of tribes and villages (a) Loan Translations, (b) Folk-etymologies; (c) Terms associated with Native American Culture and History, etc. (ii)place names referring to saints and religious sites, and names of distinguished persons (San Francisco, Washington respectively; (iii) the languages of the colonists and their place of origin (English, Spanish, French etc); (iv) classical and literary references (we can mention Athens in Georgia (a university city), Athens in Ohio
(another university city); (v) mangling of European city names (in Maryland a patent was made out early as 1677 for a place to be called by the common English name Burleigh. Later it was spelled Berlin, although still accented on the first syllable); (vi) artificial assemblages (The name Losantville derives from L (Delaware-English Licking), os the Latin “mouth”, anti, the Greek άντί, in front of" and ville, the French town).


42-58 238
Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount
only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.
59-70 221
In this study, we determined extreme maximum and minimum temperatures in both summer and winter seasons at the stations in the Mediterranean coastal areas of Turkey.
In the study, the data of 24 meteorological stations for the daily maximum and minimum
temperatures of the period from 1970–2010 were used. From this database, a set of four extreme temperature indices applied warm (TX90) and cold (TN10) days and warm spells (WSDI) and cold spell duration (CSDI). The threshold values were calculated for each station to determine the temperatures that were above and below the seasonal norms in winter and summer. The TX90 index displays a positive statistically significant trend, while TN10 display negative nonsignificant trend. The occurrence of warm spells shows statistically significant increasing trend while the cold spells shows significantly decreasing trend over the Mediterranean coastline in Turkey.


71-86 204
The population access to health care services is conditioned on the offer of medical services, which being unevenly distributed determines a limited access of the population, especially in rural areas. The inequalities in the distribution of health resources in Botosani County show a different accessibility levels to health services, depending on the living environment, but also on some financial, educational and social aspects. Using statistical data in the period 2000–2013 and spatial analysis, this paper focuses on the assessing and interpretation of the population accessibility indicators to health services in Botosani county – a small county located in the NE part of the Romania, and which is part of the poorest region of the Romanian country, in order to highlight the inequalities outlined in the county between the rural and urban areas. The inequalities of population accessibility to health care services are due to the lack of medical facilities, the poor quality of transport infrastructure and the lack of income.
87-93 196
This paper discusses some issues related to assessment and monitoring of forests in
southern Siberia. This study aims to evaluate the response of southern boreal forests to climate warming at local scale. Estimating the impacts of climate change on mountain boreal forests requires a more complete accounting of tree growth/climate interaction. We used both remote sensing and field data. Field measurements were made from the upper to lower timberline of dark deciduous forest in 2005 and 2012. The remote sensing datasets were generated from LANDSAT scenes of different dates (19.08.1988, 25.06.1992 and 18.08.2011). For estimation of forests changes, we used values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio).

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)