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Occasional Floods On The Rivers Of Russian Plain In The 20Th –21St Centuries

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2020-29

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Abstract

The article focuses on the study of flood flow changes on the rivers of the European Territory of Russia (ETR) in the last thirty years. This is an extremely important problem, as with floods, whose contribution to the structure of the annual flow of European rivers in recent decades has been increasing, the most destructive floods are associated. On the example of 55 representative hydrological gauge stations located on the ETR in regions with different conditions of runoff formation, the features of both summer and winter floods formation are considered. It has been established that over the past thirty years on the most rivers there has been an intensive reduction in the ratio of volumes and maximum flood discharges in relation to the similar characteristics of the basic runoff. Increased groundwater supply is observed, and the absence of significant freezing of the soil leads to an increase in infiltration. The volumes of flood runoff and the basic runoff become comparable or the proportion of the latter begins to prevail. The main reason for the increase in minimum water discharge is associated with an increase in flood flow under the influence of more intense and prolonged thaws. A distinctive feature of the water regime of recent decades has been the flood peaks in almost any season of the hydrological year. In the middle and southern part of the ETR – in the basins of the Volga, Oka, Vyatka, Don Rivers – there is an increase in low-water flow and in the quota of flood in annual flow. On some rivers of the ETR, the spring flood runoff currently accounts for less than 50% of the annual runoff.

About the Authors

Maria B. Kireeva
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



Ekaterina P. Rets
Water Problems Institute RAS
Russian Federation
Gubkin str., 3, Moscow, 119333


Natalya L. Frolova
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



Timothy E. Samsonov
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



Elena S. Povalishnikova
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



Andrey L. Entin
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



Ivan N. Durmanov
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



Alexander M. Ivanov
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Faculty of Geography

Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 1199911



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For citation:


Kireeva M.B., Rets E.P., Frolova N.L., Samsonov T.E., Povalishnikova E.S., Entin A.L., Durmanov I.N., Ivanov A.M. Occasional Floods On The Rivers Of Russian Plain In The 20Th –21St Centuries. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2020;13(2):84-95. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2020-29

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)