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GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

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Vol 6, No 3 (2013)

GEOGRAPHY

4-20 126
Abstract
The features of cyclic structure in the Karga-Sartan Ice Complex (IC) deposits in Northern Yakutia have been studied for the coastal lowlands. We have analyzed cycles of different genesis (cryolithological, structural, lithological, and soil-vegetation) and duration. Climate fluctuation was the major factor of cyclic structure in the IC deposits. Cyclic structure in the IC deposits develops in certain facial-genetic conditions characterized by cryogenic weathering and subsequent re-deposition of eroded soils in river valleys and alas depressions
21-37 279
Abstract
For the engineering design of underwater pipelines and communication cables in freezing seas, reliable estimates of the frequency and penetration depth of ice-keel scour on the seabed and shoreface are required. Underestimation of ice gouging intensity on the seabed can lead to the infrastructure damage, while overestimation leading to excessive burial depth raises the cost of construction. Here we present results from recent studies of ice gouge morphology in Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea. The direct impact of ice gouging by floes on the seabed and shores is described, generalized and systematized: the depth of the gouges varies from the first centimeters up to 2 m; the most intensive ice gouging is observed near the fast ice rim, due to the maximum impact executed by ice ridges frozen into large floe. We propose a zonation of Baydaratskaya Bay based on the types of ice formation and the intensity of ice impacts on the coasts and sea floor.
38-59 141
Abstract
Six palsa mire in Usa River valley and in Vorkuta area in North-eastern part of European Russia were studied in detail. In total 75 new 14C dates from different palsa sections were obtained. In palsa mire near Bugry Settlement 3.2 m high palsa dated from 8.6 to 2.1 ka BP. The permafrost and palsa began 2.1 ka BP. In palsa mire near Usa Settlement low moor peat in 2 m high palsa dated 3690 BP, palsa began to heave at least 3700 BP. A low-moor peat of 2.5 m high palsa indicates the change in the hydrological-mineral regime during 7.1 to 6.3 ka BP, heaving commenced 6 ka BP. A number of 8 14C dates from 5.6 to 2.7 ka BP obtained from peat of 3 m high palsa. Near Abez’ Settlement palsa development began about 2.8 ka BP. There are both large and smaller palsas. Low-moor peat of 3.5 m high palsa is dated between 9180 BP to 6730 BP near Nikita Settlement. In Vorkuta area near Khanovey Settlement the northern most palsa is found. The 14C age of peat at slope of the palsa is much younger, than in an axial part, there is inversion of the dates: the date 3.5 ka BP is between dates 2.9 and 2.8 ka BP. It is probably caused by creep of peat downwards from a summit. This evidenced this frozen mound is real palsa, but not a residual form as a result of erosion.
60-76 185
Abstract
The Kara Sea coasts were studied using comprehensive stratigraphic and geocryological methods. The paper presents the new analytical studies of ground ice and Quaternary deposits of Western Taymyr and presents the results of spore and pollen, foraminifera, grain-size, mineralogical, geochemical, oxygen isotopic, and other analyses. Several stratigraphic-geocryological transects from Yenisey and Gydan Bays enable us to refine the stratigraphy and palaeogeographical reconstruction of the environments and freezing of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. Marine sedimentation conditions during the late Kargino time (MIS3) changed to continental conditions in MIS2 and MIS1. Marine sediments were frozen syn- and epigenetically with cryotexture and ground ice formation. Ice wedges formation corresponds to the end of the Pleistocene (MIS2) and during cooler periods of the Holocene.

ENVIRONMENT

77-85 201
Abstract
This study projects the sea level contribution from the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) through to 2100, using a recently developed ice dynamics model forced by atmospheric parameters derived from three different climate models (CGCMs). The geographical pattern of the near-surface ice warming imposes a divergent flow field favoring mass loss through enhanced ice flow. The calculated average mass loss rate during the latter half of the 21st century is ~0.64±0.06 mm/year eustatic sea level rise, which is significantly larger than the IPCC AR4 estimate from surface mass balance. The difference is due largely to the positive feedbacks from reduced ice viscosity and the basal sliding mechanism present in the ice dynamics model. This inter-model, inter-scenario spread adds approximately a 20% uncertainty to the IPCC ice model estimates. The sea level rise is geographically non-uniform and reaches 1.69±0.24 mm/year by 2100 for the northeast coastal region of the United States, amplified by the expected weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). In contrast to previous estimates, which neglected the GrIS fresh water input, both sides of the North Atlantic Gyre are projected to experience sea level rises. The impacts on a selection of major cities on both sides of the Atlantic and in the Pacific and southern oceans also are assessed. The other ocean basins are found to be less affected than the Atlantic Ocean.
86-93 130
Abstract
The goal of the research presented herein is the investigation of the morphometric and age parameters of the recruitment of forest stands formed by Larix gmellinii, as an indicator of trends in the dynamics of the northern/upper forest boundary in the Russian Arctic, in Northern Central Siberia, in the Taimyr State Biosphere Reserve (the Ary-Mas site), and in the buffer zone of the State Biosphere Reserve “Putorana Plateau.” The morphometric parameters clearly reflect the conditions of growth and regeneration of Larix gmellinii at the northern and upper limits of its range. Both sample sites have relatively harsh conditions for growth and survival. Despite coarse soils (high gravel content) of the Putorana slopes, their significant steepness, frequent landslides and creep, the conditions for Larix gmellinii growth are better than at the Ary-Mas site. This is also reflected in the rate of regeneration. Thus, at the comparable average height of the recruitment at the forest line, its age on the Putorana Plateau is almost half of that at the Ary-Mas site (9.7 and 17.3, respectively). However, the age of the recruitment at the tree line and at the forest line on the Putorana Plateau is practically the same, while at the Ary-Mas site, the recruitment age at the tree line is 1.5 lower than at the boundary of forest. These results could indicate a trend of Larix gmellinii expansion into the ecotone over the last 20–30 yrs., especially in the mountains of the Putorana Plateau.

Sustainability

94-107 166
Abstract
The paper discusses the levels and intensity of economic cooperation of the Arctic countries and regions. There has been unprecedented economic interaction between the Polar countries over the last 20 years. The paper identifies the fundamental principles of international economic cooperation in the circumpolar area. It describes scenarios of development of the Russian Arctic to the year 2020, which vary depending on the intensity of economic cooperation in the circumpolar area.
108-118 172
Abstract
The paper discusses the modern state of the Kets ethnos, its cultural heritage, and existing problems. The paper analyzes the role of social factors in the transformation of traditional economy and the Kets philosophy at the modern stage. Using analysis of the data collected, the climatic impact on the traditional resource use of the Kets people has been identified. The paper suggests possible ways of diversification of traditional Kets economy under the existing organization of economy in the remote regions of the country. Global climate warming increases the dependency of traditional Kets economy on the environmental and geographical factors (natural-environmental resources of the taiga, natural disasters, natural risks of different origin, etc.).

NEWS AND REVIEWS

119-128 60
Abstract
THE ARCTIC HUB—REGIONAL AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES
(THE ARCTIC SCIENCE SUMMIT WEEK, ASSW—2013)


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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)