Advanced search

Communicational ties between the Republic of Bashkortostan and other Russian regions based on voice cell phone data

Full Text:


The article aims to present social ties of the Republic of Bashkortostan based on voice cell phone data, which covers 12 million calls from and to the region during the first five days of March 2020. About 96% of calls are made within the republic and only 4% of them are interregional. The people of the Republic of Bashkortostan have close connections with those who live in neighboring regions (Orenburg, Sverdlovsk oblast, the Republic of Tatarstan and especially Chelyabinsk oblast). Being a part of the Ural Economic Region, the Volga Federal District and Volga-Ural Macro Region, the republic has turned mostly towards Ural regions. We also found that the republic has close social ties with Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg and Leningrad oblast, as well as Krasnodar kray, Samara oblast and two Autonomous Districts: Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets. We estimated the number of persons who possessed Bashkir SIM-card and were outside the republic during the research period – 183 thousand; the most of them were in the abovementioned regions. While conversation between residents lasts 50 seconds, which is among the smallest values, the calls to and from republics of Altai, Tyva, Khakassia, Sakha and Magadan oblast are 5-8 times longer. Overall, the communication pattern reflects migration flows and economic relations between regions. The results of this study can be utilized by researchers and Bashkir government to explore spatial interaction patterns between regions and may help to guide transportation planning and other potential applications, e.g. infrastructure construction projects. In conclusion, we postulate that cell phone data can be exploited as a source of social ties data, however, the strengthening communication shift into Internet space is diminishing information on the directional features of the ties.

About the Authors

Valeriy V. Yumaguzin
National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE)
Russian Federation

Maria V. Vinnik
National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE)
Russian Federation


1. Ataeva A.G. and Ulyaeva A.G. (2018). Modern trends and factors of inter-regional migration of youth in Russia (in Russian). Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ekonomika – Tomsk State University Journal of Economics, no. 44, 38–57.

2. Distribution of internal Russian labor migrants by the subjects of the Russian Federation from which they leave. (2020). (in Russian) Rosstat. Available online at: [Accessed 22 June 2020].

3. Gao, S., Liu, Y., Wang, Y. and Ma, X. (2013). Discovering Spatial Interaction Communities from Mobile Phone Data. Transactions in GIS, 17, 463-481.

4. Inferring migrations, traditional methods and new approaches based on mobile phone, social media, and other big data. Feasibility study on inferring (labour) mobility and migration in the European Union from big data and social media data. (2016). Wi´sniowski, Arkadiusz; Tatem, Andrew J; Abel, Guy J; Zagheni, Emilio; Weber, Ingmar; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Hughes, Christina, 40.

5. Khilazheva G.F. (2015). Migration behavior of residents of the Republic of Bashkortostan (analysis of sociological data (in Russian). Vestnik Akademii nauk RB, vol. 20, 75-85.

6. Khilazheva G.F., Shamsutdinova N.K., Utyasheva I.B., Prudnikov V.B., Adigamova O.F. and Yagafarova D.G. (2017). Migration outflow from Bashkortostan in the context of redistribution of the human capital (in Russian). Bulletin USPTU, Science, education, economy, Series Economy, No. 4 (22), 165-173.

7. Khilazheva G.F. (2017). Participation of the people of Bashkortostan in the temporary labour migration (in Russian). Problemy vostokovedeniya, 3 (77), 18-23.

8. Khilazheva G.F. (2019). The participation of residents of Russian regions in the temporary labor migration (on the example of Republic of Bashkortostan) (in Russian) // Budushchee sfery truda: global’nye vyzovy i regional’noe razvitie: sbornik statej Mezhdunarodnogo foruma «Budushchee sfery truda: dostojnyj trud dlya vsekh» (g. Ufa, 4-5 fevralya 2019 g.) / pod red. G.R. Bajmurzinoj, R.M. Valiahmetova. – Ufa: Mir Pechati, 425-429.

9. Makhrova A. G., Kirillov P. L. and Bochkarev A. N. (2017). Commuting of the population in the Moscow agglomeration: Estimating commuting flows using mobile operator data // Regional Research of Russia, 7(1), 36–44.

10. Interregional cooperation of the RB. (2020). (in Russian), Gosudarstvennyj komitet Respubliki Bashkortostan po vneshneekonomicheskim svyazyam. Available online at: [Accessed 17 May 2020].

11. Population migration by flows. (2020). (in Russian) Bashkortostanstat. Available online at: [Accessed 14 May 2020].

12. Population of Russia 2016 (2018). (in Russian), Twenty-fourth annual population report. Ed.: S.V. Zakharov. Moscow, HSE Publishing House, 448 p.

13. RBC research: what caused migration from Bashkiria (2017). (in Russian). RBC. Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2020].

14. Russian regions: economic crisis and modernization problems (2011) (in Russian). Ed.: L. M. Grigoriev, N. V. Zubarevich, G. R. Khasaev. M., Nauka, 349.

15. Volume 8. Duration of residence of the population in the place of permanent residence (in Russian). Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2020].

16. Valiahmetov R.M., Bajmurzina G.R., Turakaev M.S., and Aitov S.G. (2018). Labor Migration as a Factor of Human Development in the Republic of Bashkortostan (in Russian) // Ekonomika i upravlenie: nauchno-prakticheskij zhurnal. № 6, 147-156.

17. Virtual population of Russia (in Russian). (2020). Available at: [Accessed 14 March 2020].

18. Yumaguzin V.V. and Vinnik M. V. (2019). Surnames in modern Russia. Annals of Human Biology, 46 (6), 475-490.

19. Yumaguzin V. V. (2017) Possibilities of studying pendulum migration based on mobile operators’ data (on the example of Ufa) (in Russian) // Demoscope Weekly. № 727 – 728. Available at: [Accessed 15 June 2020].

20. Zakirov I.V. (2016). Natural Resource Potential as a Factor of Development of Foreign Economic Relations of the Region (on the Example of the Republic of Bashkortostan) (in Russian). Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Nauki o Zemle, vol. 16, 42-54.

21. Zamyatina N. and Yashunskij A. (2018). Virtual geography of virtual population (in Russian). Monitoring Obshchestvennogo Mneniya: ekonomicheskie i Sotsialnye Peremeny. 143(1), 117–137.

22. Zubarev A. E. and Perevoznikova M. V. (2015). Review of the market of cellular communication services in Russia (in Russian). Bulletin of the Pacific State University, 3(36), 159-166.

For citation:

Yumaguzin V.V., Vinnik M.V. Communicational ties between the Republic of Bashkortostan and other Russian regions based on voice cell phone data. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2020;13(4):133-139.

Views: 116

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)