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The role of arctic and boreal area is crucial in understanding rapidly changing global climate. The climate change itself has an enhanced effect in arctic and boreal areas. On the other hand, several feedback loops and mechanisms could either enhance or decelerate climate change. Besides these interlinks, the territory has enormous natural resources and the way they are utilised in future gives us a direction how to meet global grand challenges and regional impacts. Regionally, effective early warning systems and comprehensive monitoring
will guide in reducing emissions in practise and save natural resources. Here we give insight
into these issues, introduce the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) concept applicable to the PEEX network, and give a roadmap from deep understanding to practical solutions.

About the Authors

Markku Kulmala
University of Helsinki
Russian Federation
Department of Physics

Hanna K. Lappalainen
University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute
Russian Federation
Department of Physics

Tuukka Petäjä
University of Helsinki
Russian Federation
Department of Physics

Veli-Matti Kerminen
University of Helsinki
Russian Federation
Department of Physics

Yrjö Viisanen
Finnish Meteorological Institute
Russian Federation

Gennady Matvienko
Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Vladimir Melnikov
Institute of the Cryosphere of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Alexander Baklanov
World Meteorological Organization
Russian Federation

Valery Bondur
AEROCOSMOS Research Institute for Aerospace Monitoring
Russian Federation

Nikolay Kasimov
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation
Faculty of Geography

Sergej Zilitinkevich
Department of Physics, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Russian Federation


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For citations:

Kulmala M., Lappalainen H.K., Petäjä T., Kerminen V., Viisanen Y., Matvienko G., Melnikov V., Baklanov A., Bondur V., Kasimov N., Zilitinkevich S. PAN-EURASIAN EXPERIMENT (PEEX) PROGRAM: GRAND CHALLENGES IN THE ARCTIC-BOREAL CONTEXT. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2016;9(2):5-18.

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