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Relationship Between Major And Trace Elements In Ulaanbaatar Soils: A Study Based On Multivariate Statistical Analysis

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This article focuses on the relationships between major (Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, K, S, P and Ti) and potentially toxic trace (Ag, As, B, Ba, Bi, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, F, Ge, Mo, Mn, Li, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Tl, V and Zn) elements in Ulaanbaatar surface soils and also sources of the trace elements in the soils distinguished by the methods of multivariate statistical analysis. Results of exploratory data analysis of 325 Ulaanbaatar soil samples show the accumulation of Ca, S, B, Bi, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr and Zn in urban soils. The major elements were grouped by cluster analysis in tree associations characterizing main soil fractions: sandy P-(K-Na-Si), clayey (Mg-Ti-Fe-Al) and silty (S-Ca). The factor analysis shows that silty fraction is enriched in major elements of both natural and anthropogenic origin. The principal component analysis from 32 variables extracted nine principal components with 82.49% of the cumulative explained variance. The results of cluster and factor analyses well agree and reaffirm the enrichment causes of potentially toxic elements are a coal combustion at thermal power stations (B, Bi, Ca, Mo, S and Sr) and traffic emissions (Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn). Spatial distributions of trace elements in the districts of Ulaanbaatar city were obtained by ordinary kriging. It is illustrated that the different principal components define the various origins and patterns of accumulation of trace elements in soils. The supplementation of data set by the concentration of organic carbon and the species of elements could help to identify the sources of such elements as P, Ni, Al, Fe, Ca, Ba, Bi, Cr, Zn, Sr and Sb in urban soils more completely.

About the Authors

Elena V. Shabanova
A.P. Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry SB RAS
Russian Federation

Ts. Byambasuren
Irkutsk State University
Russian Federation

G. Ochirbat
Institute of Physics and Technology of MAS

Irina E. Vasil'eva
A.P. Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry SB RAS
Russian Federation

B. Khuukhenkhuu
Institute of Physics and Technology of MAS

Alexei T. Korolkov
Irkutsk State University
Russian Federation


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For citations:

Shabanova E.V., Byambasuren T., Ochirbat G., Vasil'eva I.E., Khuukhenkhuu B., Korolkov A.T. Relationship Between Major And Trace Elements In Ulaanbaatar Soils: A Study Based On Multivariate Statistical Analysis. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2019;12(3):199-212.

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ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)