Preview

GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY

Advanced search

Ecological Zonation As A Tool For Restoration Of Degraded Forests In Northern Mongolia

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2019-31

Abstract

We developed a geo-vegetation zonation in the Khaan Khentii massif, northern Mongolia. Our specific objective was to assess and classify the response of the tree vegetation to environmental factors operating at a coarse climatic level. We sampled forest ecosystem vegetation, climate, physiographic features, and soil properties. Our analysis included clustering, ordination, classification, and ANOVA techniques. Based on the complex data set, we identified three geo-vegetation zones: forest-steppe, montane and dark taiga zone. We characterized them based on the regional environmental factors; (1) climate as indicated by altitude, i.e., precipitation, (2) geomorphology by an index of the vertical distance to channel network and soils by O horizon thickness and soil types. Birch and aspen ecosystems were excluded as discrete zones due to their broad ecological amplitude.

The geo-vegetation zonation outlined in this paper is the first attempt at quantifying vegetation along with the environment at a macroclimatic level in Mongolia. This coarsescale zonation provides a framework for building a comprehensive ecological classification, a background for sustainable forest management, which is currently unavailable in Mongolia and many central Asian countries. Additionally, it offers a roadmap for a comprehensive ecosystem survey and may act as an information platform and reference for current environmental issues such as forest degradation across Mongolian landscapes. 

About the Authors

Antonín Kusbach
Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Brno Forest Management Institute, Brandýs nad Labem
Czech Republic


Tadeáš Štěrba
Forest Management Institute, Brandýs nad Labem
Czech Republic


Jan Šebesta
Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Brno
Czech Republic


Tomáš Mikita
Department of Forest Management and Applied Geoinformatics, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno
Czech Republic


Enkhtuya Bazarradnaa
School of Agroecology and Business, Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Darkhan Uul
Czech Republic


Sarantuya Dambadarjaa
School of Agroecology and Business, Mongolian University of Life Sciences, Darkhan Uul
Czech Republic


Martin Smola
Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Brno Lesprojekt Východní Čechy Ltd. Company, Hradec Králové
Czech Republic


References

1. Altrell D. and Erdenebat E. (2016). Mongolian Multipurpose National Forest Inventory 2014 – 2016. 1st edition. Ulaanbaatar, Ministry of Environment and Tourism. p. 171. Bailey R.G. (2002). Ecoregion-based Design for Sustainability. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.

2. Barbati A., Corona P., and Marchetti M. (2007). A Forest Typology for Monitoring Sustainable Forest Management: The Case of European Forest Types. Plant Biosystems, 141, pp. 93–103.

3. Batkhuu N-O., Lee D.K., Tsogtbaatar J. (2011). Forest and Forestry Research and Education in Mongolia. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 30, pp. 600–617.

4. Breiman L. (2001). Random forests. Machine Learning, 45, pp. 5-32.

5. Caudullo G., Pasta S., Giannetti F., Barbati A. and Chirici, G. (2016). European Forest Classifications. In: San-Miguel-Ayanz J., de Rigo D., Caudullo G., Houston Durrant T., and Mauri A. (Eds.), European Atlas of Forest Tree Species. Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. 32-33.

6. Chen C., Liaw A., and Breiman L. (2004). Using Random forest to Learn Imbalanced Data. Technical Report 666. Statistics Department of University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.

7. Chytrý M., et al. (2012). High Species Richness in Hemiboreal Forests of the Northern Russian Altai, Southern Siberia. Journal of Vegetation Science, 23, pp. 605-616.

8. Cook J.E. (1996). Implications of Modern Successional Theory for Habitat Typing: a Review. Forest Science, 42, pp. 67-75.

9. Čermák P., Mikita T., Trnka M., Štěpánek P., Jurečka F., Kusbach A. and Šebesta J. (2018). Changes of Climate Characteristics of Forest Altitudinal Zones within the Czech Republic and their Possible Consequences for Forest Species Composition. Baltic Forestry 24(2), pp. 234-248.

10. Damman A.W.H. (1979). The Role of Vegetation Analysis in Land Classification. Forestry Chronicle, 55: pp. 175-182.

11. Dorjgotov D. (2009). Vegetation. In: Sh. Tsegmid, V.V. Borobiev, eds., Mongolian National Atlas. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography Press. pp. 125- 133.

12. Dulamsuren Ch., Hauck M., and Muehlenberg M. (2005). Vegetation at the Taiga ForestSteppe Borderline in the Western Khentey Mountains, Northern Mongolia. Ann. Bot. Fennici, 42, pp. 411-426.

13. Ermakov N., Cherosov M., and Gogoleva P. (2002). Classification of the Ultracontinental Boreal Forests in Central Yakutia. Folia Geobotanica, 37 pp. 419-440.

14. Geological Map of Mongolia. (1998). Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Office, Geological Survey with Mongolian Academy of Science, Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Sheet M-48, Scale 1: 1 000 000, Ulaanbaarar, Mongolia.

15. Gerelbaatar S., Baatarbileg N., Battulga P., Batsaikhan G., Khishigjargal M., Batchuluun T., Gradel A. (2019). Which Selective Logging Intensity is Most Suitable for the Maintenance of Soil Properties and the Promotion of Natural Regeneration in Highly Continental Scots Pine Forests?–Results 19 Years after Harvest Operations in Mongolia. Forests, 10(141), doi:10.3390/f10020141.

16. Goldammer J.G. (2002). Fire Situation in Mongolia. Int. For. Fire News, 26, pp. 75–83.

17. Gradel A., Batsaikhan G., Ochirragchaa N., Batdorj D. and Kusbach A. (2017). ClimateGrowth Relationships and Pointer Year Analysis of a Siberian Larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) Chronology from the Mongolian Mountain Forest-Steppe. Forest Ecosystems, 4(22), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-017-0110-2.

18. Grubov V. I. (1982). Opredelitel’ Sosudistyh Rastenij Mongolii (s Atlasom) [Key to the Vascular Plants of Mongolia (with an Atlas)]. – Leningrad, Nauka. p. 442, (in Russian).

19. Haeussler S. (2011). Rethinking Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification for a Whanging world. Environmental Reviews, 19, pp. 254-277, doi: 10.1139/A11-008.

20. Hair J.F.J., Hult T.G.H., Ringle C. and Sarstedt M. A. (2013). Primeron Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM); SAGE Publications, Inc.: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; p. 307, ISBN 9781452217444.

21. Hais M., Chytrý M. and Horsák M. (2016). Exposure-Related Rorest-Steppe: A Diverse Landscape Type Determined by Topography and Climate. Journal of Arid Environments, 135, pp. 75–84.

22. Hilbig W. and Knapp H.D. (1983). Vegetationmosaik and Floraelemente an der WaldSteppen Grenze in Khentey Gebirge 174: (Mongolei). Flora, 174, pp. 1-89.

23. Holmgren G.S., Juve R.L. and Geschwender R.C. (1977). A Mechanically Controlled Variable Rate Leaching Device. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 41, pp. 1207-1208.

24. Johnson D.L., Keller E.A. and Rockwell T.K. (1990). Dynamic Pedogenesis: New Views on Some Key Soil Concepts, and a Model for Interpreting Quaternary Soils. Quaternary Research, 33, pp. 306-319.

25. Juřička D., Kusbach A., Pařílková J., Houška J., Ambrožová P., Pecina V., Rosická Z, Brtnický M. and Kynický J. (2019). Evaluation of Natural Forest Regeneration as a Part of Land Restoration in Khan Khentii Massive, Mongolia. Journal of Forestry Research, https://doi. org/10.1007/s11676-019-00962-5.

26. Karamysheva Z.V. and Khramtsov V.N. (1995). The Steppes of Mongolia. Braun-Blanquetia, 17, pp. 1-79.

27. Karta Lesov Mongolskoy Narodnoy Respubliki, M. 1: 1500000 (Map of the Forests of the People’s Republic of Mongolia, Scale 1: 1500000). (1983). Updated 2005. Moscow: Glav. Upr. Geodz. Kartogr. Mongol. i Glav. Upr. Geodez. Kartogr. SSSR (Central Directorate for Geodesy and Cartography of Mongolia and Central Directorate for Geodesy and Cartography of the USSR, (in Russian).

28. Khodolmor S., Tsogtbaatar, J., Das D., Batzargal Z. and Mandakh N. (2013). Desertification Atlas of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar. ISBN: 978-9973-0-065-2, p. 134, (in Mongolian).

29. Knystautas A. (1987). The Natural History of the USSR. McGraw-Hill, New York. Kolesnikov B.P. (1974). Genetic stage in forest typology and its objectives. Russian J. For. Sci. 2: 3–20, (translated from Russian by Lesovedenie, 1974).

30. Korotkov, I.A. (1976). Geograficheskie zakonomernosti raspredeleniya lesov v Mongol’skoy Narodnoy Respublike (Geographical specifics of forest distribution in the Mongolian People’s Republic). Botanicheskiy Zhurnal (Rus. J. Bot.), 61(2), pp. 145-153, (in Russian with English abstract).

31. Kotar J. (1988). Ecological Land Classification: the First Step in Forest Resource Management. In: J.E. Johnson (ed.), Managing North Central Forests for Non-timber Values. Proceedings of the Fourth Society of American Foresters Region V Technical Conference, Publication 88-04. Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, USA, pp. 43-52.

32. Krajina V.J. (1965). Biogeoclimatic Zones and Classification in British Columbia. Ecology of Western North America, 1, pp. 1-17.

33. Kusbach A., Van Miegroet H., Boettinger J.L., et al. (2014). Vegetation Geo-Climatic Zonation in the Rocky Mountains, northern Utah, USA. Journal of Mountain Science, 11(3), pp. 656- 673. DOI: 10.1007/s11629-013-2793-3.

34. Kusbach A., Friedl M., Zouhar V., Mikita T. and Šebesta J. (2017a). Assessing Forest Classification in a Landscape-Level Framework: An Example from Central European Forests, Forests, [online], Available at: http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4907/8/12 [Accessed 9 Jan. 2019].

35. Kusbach A., Štěrba T., Smola M., Novák J., Lukeš P., Strejček R., Škoda A., Bažant V., and Pondělíčková A. (2017b). Development of Forests and the Gene Pool of Local Forest Tree Ecotypes in Mongolia. Development of Forests and Landscape in Mongolia, Silviculture, Urban Forestry, Public Relation. Proceedings of the seminar, Sharyn Gol/Darkhan, Mongolia, September 2017. Project CzDA-RO-MN-2014-6-31210. ÚHÚL Brandýs nad Labem, Czech Republic 2017. ISBN 978-80-88184-12-6, (in Czech and Mongolian).

36. Lattin J.M., Carrol J.D., et al. (2003). Analyzing Multivariate Data. Brooks/Cole, Thompson Learning, Pacific Grove, California, USA.

37. Lavrenko E.M. and Sokolov V.E. (1978). Forests of Mongolia- Geography and Typology. Academy of Science of USSR, Nauka, Moscow, p. 128, (in Russian).

38. Liaw A., Wiener M. (2002). Classification and Regression by randomForest. R News, 2(3), pp. 18–22.

39. Major J. (1951). A Functional, Factorial Approach to Plant Ecology. Ecology, 32(3), pp. 392- 412.

40. McCune B., Grace J.B. and Urban D.L. (2002). Analysis of Ecological Communities, 2nd Edition. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, USA.

41. McCune B. and Mefford M.J. (2011). PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data, Version 6.0 for Windows; MjM Software: Gleneden Beach, OR, USA.

42. Morozov G.F. (1925). Theory of forest types. Leningrad: State Publishing House, p. 367, (translated from Russian from Ucheniye o tipakh lesa, 1925).

43. Mühlenberg M. et al. (2011). Biodiversity Survey at Khonin Nuga Research Station, WestKhentey, Mongolia.

44. Nogina N.A. et al. (1980). Pocvennaya karta mongolskoy narodnoy respubliky (Soil map of Mongolia) 1: 2 500 000. Commom Soviet-Mongolian expedition, Pocvennyy institut V. V. Dokuchaeva VASCHNIL (V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute VASCHNIL), Moscow, Russia, (in Russian).

45. Nyam L., Otgonsuren B., Ganbaatar Ch., Dashdorj N., Saule A., Tsogbaatar A., and Enkhjargal D. (2009). Guidelines for forestry workers in Mongolia. The Forest Agency, Implementing Agency for Government of Mongolia. p. 301.

46. Olsen S.R., Cole C.V., et al. (1954). Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soil by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. UDA, Circular 939. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA.Oyunsanaa, B. (2011). Fire and Stand Dynamics in Different Forest Types of the West Khentey Mountains, Mongolia. PhD Thesis, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen.

47. Pfister R.D. and Arno S.F. (1980). Classifying Forest Habitat Types Based on Potential Climax Vegetation. Forest Science, 26, pp. 52-70.

48. Plíva K. and Žlábek I. (1986). Přírodní lesní oblasti ČSR (Natural Forest Areas in the Czech Republic). Státní Zemědělské Nakladatelství Praha: Praha, Czechoslovakia, p. 313, (in Czech).

49. Pogrebnyak P.S. (1955). Fundamentals of forest typology. Kiev. Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, p. 452, (translated from Russian from Osnovi lesnoi tipologii, 1968).

50. Pojar J., Klinka K. and Meidinger D.V. (1987). Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification in British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 22, pp. 119–154.

51. R Core Team. (2014). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing; R Core Team: Vienna, Austria.

52. Roberts D.W. and Cooper S.V. (1989). Concepts and Techniques in Vegetation Mapping. In: D.E. Ferguson et al. (eds.), Proceedings: Land Classifications Based on Vegetation: Applications for Resource Management. General Technical Report INT-257 USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Rersearch Station, Ogden, Utah, USA. pp. 90-96.

53. Smola M., Kusbach A., Štěrba T., Adolt R, Nečas M. (2019). Forest management plan in Domogt Shariin Gol, Mongolia is elaborated on ecological and sustainable principles. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 12/2: 92-115. DOI:10.2478/jlecol-2019-0012

54. Sukachev V.N. (1972). Fundamentals of forest typology and forest biogeocenology. Volume1. Leningrad. Nauka, p. 408, (translated from Russian from Osnovi lesnoi tipologii i lesnoi biogeotsenologii, 1972].

55. Thien S.J. (1979). A Flow Diagram for Teaching Texture-by-Feel Analysis. Journal of Agronomic Education, 8, pp. 54-55.

56. Tsedendash G. (1995). The Forest Vegetation of the Khentey Mountains. Dissertation, National University of Mongolia, Ulan Bator, (in Mongolian).

57. Tsedendash G. (1998). Forest Ecological Features of Mongolia. Paper presented at the Open Parliamentary Forum. April 28, 1998, Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia, (in Mongolian).

58. Tsogtbaatar J. (2004). Deforestation and reforestation needs in Mongolia. Forest Ecology and Management, 201, pp. 57–63.

59. Tsogtbaatar J. (2007). Forest Rehabilitation in Mongolia. In: D.K. Lee, ed., Keep Asia Green, Volume II, “Northeast Asia”. IUFRO World Series Vol. 20-II. IUFRO, Vienna. ISBN 978-3-901347- 76-4. pp. 91-116.

60. Ulziikhutag N. (1989). Characteristics of flora of Mongolia. In: Ch. Sanchir, ed., Synopsis of Mongolian flora. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: State Publishing. pp. 107-148, (in Mongolian).

61. Unatov A.A. (1950). Botanical-geographical district allocation. In: E.M. Lavrenko, ed., The main features of the vegetation cover of Mongolia. Leningrad, Russia: Russian Academy of Sciences Press. pp. 124-189, (in Russian).

62. Vahalík P. and Mikita T. (2011). Possibilities of Forest Altitudinal Vegetation Zones Modelling by Geoinformatic Analysis. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 4(2), pp. 49-61.

63. Viewegh J., Kusbach A. and Mikeska M. (2003). Czech forest ecosystem classification. Journal of Forestry Science, 49, pp. 85–93.

64. Vostokova E.A., Gunin P.D. (2005). Ecosystems of Mongolia. Atlas. Moscow 2005: General Scientific Edition. Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science, p. 48.

65. Ward J.H. (1963). Hierarchical Grouping to Optimize an Objective Function. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 58, pp. 236-244.

66. Wishart D. (1969). An Algoritm for Hierarchical Classifications. Biometrics, 25, pp. 165-170.

67. WRB. (2014). World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, update 2015, International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps. Report 106. FAO, Rome, [online]. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/i3794en/I3794en.pdf [Accessed 9 Jan. 2019].

68. Zenner E.K., Peck J.E., et al. (2010). Combining Ecological Classification Systems and Conservation Filters Could Facilitate the Integration of Wildlife and Forest Management. Journal of Forestry, 108, pp. 296-300.


For citation:


Kusbach A., Štěrba T., Šebesta J., Mikita T., Bazarradnaa E., Dambadarjaa S., Smola M. Ecological Zonation As A Tool For Restoration Of Degraded Forests In Northern Mongolia. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2019;12(3):98-116. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2019-31

Views: 62


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)