Advanced search


Full Text:


The paper is concerned with the small mammal fauna evolution in Europe in the Middle Pleistocene. The information on the faunas of the end of the Early Pleistocene has been also taken into consideration. The data available made possible identifying several stages in the small mammal evolution. Not all intervals within the Middle Pleistocene are provided with sufficient information for recognizing individual stages; that is particularly true for the cold periods of the Middle Pleistocene – the Donian and the Okian glaciations (=Elsterian, =Anglian). Based on the studies of small mammal localities, the biostratigraphic scheme has been developed, the principal phylogenetic lineages of Arvicolinae were traced, and maps of the Middle Pleistocene small mammal localities have been compiled

About the Authors

A. K. Markova
Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Russian Federation

Doctor of Geographical Sciences.


A. Yu. Puzachenko
Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Russian Federation

Doctor of biological Sciences.



1. Agadjanian A.K. (2009). Small mammals of the Pliocene – Pleistocene of the Russian Plain. Moscow: Nauka Press (in Russian).

2. Agusti J. (1992).The Allophaiomys complex in Southern Europe, Geobios, 25 (1), pp. 133-144 Alexandrova L.P. (1976).

3. Anthropogene rodents of the European part of USSR. Moscow: Nauka Press (in Russian).

4. Bates M.R., Wenban-Smith F.F., Bello S.M., Bridgland D.R., Buck L.T., Collins M.J., Keen, J., Leary D.H., Parfitt S.A., Penkman K., Rhodes E., Ryssaer C. and Whittaker J.E. (2014). Late persistence of the Acheulian in southern Britain in an MIS 8 interstadial: evidence from Harnham, Wiltshire. Quaternary Science Reviews, 101, pp. 159-176.

5. Blackwell B. and Schwarcz H.P. (1986). U-Series analyses of the Lower Travertine at Ehringsdorf, DDR. Quaternary Research, 25 (2), pp. 215-222.

6. Chaline J. (1972). Les Rongeurs du Pleistocéne moyen et supérieur de la France. Paris: Cahiers de Paléontologie, CNRF.

7. Cuenca-Bescós G., Rofes J., López-García J.-M., Blain H.-A., Rabal-Garcés R., Sauqué V., Arsuaga J.L., Bermúdez de Castro J. M. and Carbonell, E. (2013). The small mammals of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca, Spain) and the first entrance of Homo in Western Europe. Quaternary International. 295, pp. 28–35.

8. Cyrek K., Socha P., Stefaniak K., Madeyska T., Miroslaw-Grabowska J., Sudoł M. and Czyźewski Ł. (2010). Palaeolithic of Biśnic Cave (Southern Poland) within the environmental Background. Quaternary International. 220, pp. 5–30.

9. Gibbard P.L., Cohen K.M., Boreham S. and Moscariello A. (2004). Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, International Commission on Stratigraphy: Cambridge.

10. Gromov V.I. (1948). Palaeontological and archaeological foundation of the stratigraphy of the Quaternary continental deposits in the territory of the USSR. Moscow: the USSR Academy of Sciences (in Russian).

11. Grün R. and Schwartz H.P. (2000). Revised open system U-series/ESR age calculations for teeth from Stratum C at the Hoxnian interglacial type locality, England. Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, pp.1151-1154.

12. Heinrich W.-D. (1978). Zur biometrischen Erfassung eines Evolutionstrends bei Arvicola (Rodentia, Mammalia) aus dem Pleistozän Thüringens. Berlin: Säugetierkdl. Inform., 2, pp. 3-21.

13. Heinrich W.-D. (1990). Some aspects of evolution and biostratigraphy of Arvicola (Mammalia, Rodentia) in the central European Pleistocene. Prague: Int. Symp. Evol. Phyl. Biostr. Arvicolids., pp. 165-180.

14. Fejfar O. and Horaček I. (1990). Review of fossil arvicolids (Mammalia, Rodentia) of the Pliocene and Quaternary in Czechoslovakia. Int. Symp. Evol. Phyl. Biostr. Arvicolids. Prague: Geological Survey, pp. 125–132.

15. Iosifova Yu.I., Agadjanian A.K., Pisareva V.V., and Semenov V.V. (2006). The Upper Don basin is the stratotype of the Middle Pleistocene of Russian Plain. Palynological Reconstructions: Stratigraphy, Geoecology. S.-Petersburg: Nedra Press, pp. 41–121 (in Russian) .

16. Krasnenkov R.V. and Kazantceva, N.E. (1993). The discovery of the early Dnieper alluvium in the Upper Don terraces, Bull. of regional commission of Central and Southern Russian Platform, 2, pp.153-161 (in Russian).

17. Krajcarz M.T. (2012). Small fossil wolverine Gulo from Middle Pleistocene of Poland. Acta zoologica cracoviensia, 55(1), pp. 79-87.

18. Krokhmal A.I. and Rekovets L.I. (2010). Pleistocene small mammal localities of Ukraine and adjacent territories. Kiev: LAT and K Press (In Russian)

19. Lisiecki L.E. and Raymo M.E. (2005). A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography, 20 (1), PA1003. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071.

20. Markova A.K. (1975). Pleistocene rodents of Dnieper basin and its significance for the palaeogeography and stratigraphy. Aftoref. disser. na soisk. uch. stepeni kand. geogr. nauk. Moscow: Institute of Geogr. Ac. Nauk USSR Press (in Russian).

21. Markova A.K. (1981). Morphological changes of water voles teeth during the Pleistocene, In: A.A.Velichko and S.M. Shik, eds., The questions in Pleistocene palaeogeography of glacial and periglacial regions. Moscow: Nauka Press, pp. 91-110 (in Russian).

22. Markova A.K. (1982). Pleistocene rodents of the Russian Plain. Moscow: Nauka Press (in Russian).

23. Markova A.K. (1990). The sequence of Early Pleistocene small-mammal faunas from the South Russian Plain. Quartärpaläontologie, 8, pp. 131-151.

24. Markova A.K. (1992). Pleistocene microtheriofauna of Eastern Europe. In: A.A. Velichko and S.M. Shik, eds., Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of Quaternary of Eastern Europe, Moscow: Inst. of Geography RAS, pp. 50-94 (in Russian).

25. Markova A.K. (1998). Pleistocene rodents of the Central and Southern Russian Plain. In: J.J. Saunders, B.W. Styles and G. F. Baryshnikov, eds., Quaternary Paleozoology in the Northern Hemisphere. Illinois State Museum Scientific papers, XXVI, pp. 119-143.

26. Markova A.K. (2005). Eastern European rodent (Rodentia, Mammalia) faunas from the EarlyMiddle Pleistocene transition. Quaternary International. 131, pp. 71-77.

27. Markova A.K. (2006). Likhvin Interglacial small mammal faunas of Eastern Europe. Quaternary International. 149 (1), pp. 67-79.

28. Markova A.K. (2007). Pleistocene mammal faunas of Eastern Europe. Quaternary International. 160, pp. 100-111.

29. Markova A.K. (2014). European small mammal faunas during the end of the Early Pleistocene – the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. Izvestia RAS, Seria geograph., 5, pp. 83-98 (In Russian)

30. Markova A. and van Kolfschoten T. (2012). Middle Pleistocene small mammal faunas of Eastern and Western Europe: chronology, correlation. Geography, environment, sustainability, 5(4), pp. 17-23. Available at:

31. Markova A.K. and Puzachenko A.Yu. (2016). The European small mammal faunas related to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary International. 420, pp. 378-390.

32. Markova A.K. and Vislobokova I.A. (2016). Mammal faunas in Europe at the end of the Early – beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary International. 420, pp. 363- 377.

33. Masini F. and Sala B. (2011). Considerations on an integrated biochronological scale of Italian Quaternary continental mammals. Italian Journal of Quaternary Sciences, 24 (2), pp. 193-198.

34. Maul L.C. (2000). Die Fossilfundstelle Weimar-Ehringsdorf. Eine Überisicht. Geowiss. Mitt. Thüringen, 10, pp. 167-174.

35. Maul L.C. (2001). Die Kleinsäugerreste (Insectivora, Lagomorpha, Rodentia) aus dem Unterpleistozän von Untermassfeld. In: R.-D. Kahlke, ed., Das Pleistozän von Untermassfeld bei Meiningen (Thüringen). Monographien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz, 40 (3), pp. 783–887.

36. Maul L.C., Heinrich W.-D., Parfitt S.A. and Paunescu, A.-C. (2007). Comments on the correlation between magnetostratigraphy and evolution of Microtus (Arvicolidae, Rodentia, Mammalia) during the Early and early Middle Pleistocene. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 259, pp. 243-263.

37. Maul L. and Markova A.K. (2007). Similarity and regional differences in Quaternary arvicolid evolution in Central and Eastern Europe. Quaternary International. 160 (1), pp. 81-99.

38. Maul L. and Parfitt S.A. (2010). Micromammals from the 1995 Mammoth Excavation at West Runton, Norfolk, UK: Morphometric data, biostratigraphy and taxonomic reappraisal. Quaternary International. 228, pp. 91-115.

39. Maul L.C., Rekovets L., Heinrich W.-D., Keller T. and Storch G. (2000). Arvicola mosbachensis (Schmidtgen 1911) of Mosbach 2: a basic sample for the early evolution of the genus and a reference for further biostratigraphical studies. Senckenbergiana lethaea, 80 (1), pp. 129-147.

40. Mikhailesku C.D. and Markova A.K. (1992). The paleogeographical stages of fauna development on the south of Moldova in Anthropogene. Kishinev: Shtiintsa Press. (In Russian).

41. Motuzko A.N. (1985). Anthropogene rodents of Belorussia and adjacent territories. Minsk: Nauka i Tekhnika Press, pp.173-186 (In Russian).

42. Nadachowski A. (1985). Biharian voles (Arvicolidae, Rodentia, Mammalia) from Kozi Grzbiet (Central Poland). Acta zool. Cracov., 29(2), pp. 13-28.

43. Nadachowski, A. (1990). Review of fossil Rodentia from Poland (Mammalia). Senckenbergiana Biologica, 70(4/6), pp. 229-250.

44. Nadachowski A., Žarski M., Urbanowski M., Wojtal P., Miekina B., Lipecki G., Ochman K., Krawczyk M., Jakubowski G. and Tomek T. (2009). Late Pleistocene Environment of the Czêstochowa Upland (Poland) reconstructed on the basis of faunistic evidence from archaeological cave sites. Kraków: Institute of Systematic and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences.

45. Parfitt S. (1998). The interglacial mammalian fauna from Barnham. In: N. Ashton, S.G. Lewis and S. Parfitt, eds., Excavations at the Lower Palaeolithic Site at East Farm, Barnham: 1989-94. London: British Museum Occasional Paper, 125, pp. 111-147.

46. Pitts M. and Roberts M. (1997). Fairweather Eden: Life in Britain half a million years ago as revealed by the excavations at Boxgrove. London: House ISBN 9780712676861.

47. Rekovets L.I. (1994). Anthropogene small mammals from the southern part of Eastern Europe. Kiev: Naukova Dumka Press (In Russian).

48. Schreve D.C. (2004a). The mammalian fauna of Barnfield Pit, Swanscombe, Kent. The Quaternary mammals of Southern and Eastern England. Field Guide. EuroMam UK, pp. 29 -48.

49. Schreve D.C. (2004b). Late Middle Pleistocene (MIS 9) river Thames terrace deposits at Purfleet, Essex. The Quaternary mammals of Southern & Eastern England. Field Guide. EuroMam UK, pp. 49 -67.

50. Schreve D.C. (2004c). The mammalian fauna of the penultimate (MIS 7) interglacial in the lower Themes valley. The Quaternary mammals of Southern and Eastern England. Field Guide. EuroMam UK, pp. 69 – 79.

51. Shik S.M. (2014). Neopleistocene of central European Russia (the new ideas on stratigraphy and palaeogeography). Stratigraphy. Geol. Correlation, 22 (2), pp. 108-120 (In Russian).

52. Siori M.S. and Sala B. (2007). The mammal fauna from the late Early Biharian site of Castagnone (Northern Monferrato, Piedmant, NW Italy). Geobios, 40, pp. 207-217.

53. Socha P. (2014). Rodent palaeofaunas from Biśik Cave (Krakow-Częstochowa Upland, Poland): palaeoecological, palaeoclimatic and biostrtigraphic reconstruction. Quaternary International. 326-327, pp. 64-81.

54. Stuart A.J. and Lister A.M. (2001). The mammalian faunas of Pakefield/Kessingland and Corton, Suffolk, UK: evidence for a new temperate episode in the British early Middle Pleistocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 20, pp. 1677–1692.

55. Van Kolfschoten T. (2014). The Palaeolithic locality Schöningen (Germany): A review of the mammalian record. Quaternary International. 326-327, pp. 469-480.

56. Van Kolfschoten T. (1990). Review of the Pleistocene arvicolid faunas from the Netherlands. Prague: Int. Symp. Evol. Phyl. Biostr. Arvicolids, pp. 255-274.

57. Van Kolfschoten T. and Turner E. (1996). Early Middle Pleistocene Faunas from Kärlich and Miesenheim I and their biostratigraphic implication. In: Turner C., ed., The early Middle Pleistocene in Europe. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 227–253.

58. Van der Meulen A.J. (1973). Middle Pleistocene smaller mammals from the Monte Peglia (Oriento, Italy) with special reference to the phylogeny of Microtus (Arvicolidae, Rodentia). Quaternaria, 17, pp. 1-144.

59. Velichko A.A., Markova A.K., Morozova T.D., Nechaev V.P., Svetlitckaya T.V., Tcatckin A.I. and Chichagova O.A. (1992). The geochronology of loess-soil formation S-W of the Russian Plain by new data. Geochronology of the Quaternary. Moscow: Nauka Press, pp. 28-33 (In Russian).

60. Vislobokova I. and Tesakov A. (2013). Early and Middle Pleistocene of Northern Eurasia. In: Elias S.A., ed., The Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, vol. 4. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 605-614.

61. Von Koenigswald W. and Heinrich, W.-D. (1999). Mittelpleistozäne Säugetierfaunen aus Mitteleuropa – der Versuch einer biostratigraphischen Zuordnung. Darmstädter Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte, 9, pp. 53-112.

62. Von Koenigswald W. and van Kolfschoten, T. (1996). The Mimomys – Arvicola boundary and the enamel thickness quotient (SDQ) of Arvicola as stratigraphic markers in the Middle Pleistocene. In. Turner C., ed., The early Middle Pleistocene in Europe. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 211-226.

63. Zastrozhnov A., Danukalova G. and Murray A. (2017). New data on the age of the Neopleistocene deposits of the lower Volga sites according to the OSL method results. Fundamental problems of Quaternary: the results of investigation and the main directions in the future. Moscow: GEOS, pp. 139-140.


For citations:


Views: 979

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)