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There is growing concern, how and to what extent future changes in climate will affect human society and natural environments. Continuous emissions of Green House Gasses (GHGs) at or above current rates will cause further warming. This, in turn, may modify global climate system during 21st century that very likely would have larger impacts than those observed during 20th century. At present, Global Climate Models (GCMs) are only the most reliable tools available for studying behaviour of the climate system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of GCMs including their development and applications in climate change impacts studies. Following a discussion of the limitations of GCMs at regional and local scales, different approaches of downscaling are discussed in detail.

About the Authors

Dharmaveer Singh
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad - 211004, (India)
Russian Federation

Sanjay K. Jain
National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee - 247667 (India)
Russian Federation

R. D. Gupta
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad - 211004, Uttar Pradesh (India)
Russian Federation


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