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Changes In Land Use/ Cover And Water Balance Components During 1964–2010 Period In The Mono River Basin, Togo-Benin

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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted that sub-tropical regions are more vulnerable to climate change’s negative effects (CC). Additionally, to CC, land use and land cover (LULC) changes and dam construction, often neglected, play an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of water balance components (WBC) for agricultural production and socio-ecological equilibrium. This study aimed to analyze and compare the changes in LULC and WBC for the period before Nangbéto dam construction (1964–1986) and the period after its construction (1988–2010) in the Mono River Basin (MRB). To this end, the study used mainly WBC extracted from the validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool and LULC data of 1975–2000 in the MRB to explore their temporal distributions and the link in their changes. The results showed that mean actual monthly evapotranspiration, percolation, water yield, surface runoff, groundwater, and lateral flow represent 51%, 17.5%, 15.9%, 9.4%; 5.7% and 0.4%, respectively, of total water balance between 1964 and 1986. The same components represented 51%, 9.1%, 20.4%, 6.3%, 10.6% and 2.6%, respectively, between 1988 and 2010. The contribution of these WBC in the mean-annual (1964–1986) period was for actual evapotranspiration (31.3%), water yield (25.9%), percolation (17.7%), groundwater (14.71%), surface runoff (9.94%) and lateral flow (0.40%). Meanwhile, between 1988 and 2010, the contribution of actual evapotranspiration, water yield, percolation, groundwater, surface runoff and lateral flow is 49.8%,19.9%, 11.2%, 10.3%, 6.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. The results showed that the peaks of the actual evapotranspiration, surface runoff, percolation and water yield appeared in September, corresponding to a month after the maximum rainfall in August. However, our more detailed analysis showed that a significant decrease in forest and savanna and an increase in croplands led to a decrease in actual evapotranspiration and lateral flow over the second simulation period compared to the first period of simulation over the MRB scale. These findings showed that sustainable management and conservation of natural vegetation are crucial for integrated water resource management and conservation in MRB.

About the Authors

Djan’na K. Houteta
Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique (ITRA); Université de Lomé; West Africa Science Service Centre on Climate change and Adapted Land Use, WASCAL-Climate Change and Water Resources, University of Abomey Calavi; African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS)

Faculté Des Sciences, Université de Lomé

Lomé 01BP 1163, 

01B:P 1515 Lomé,

03 PO Box 526 Cotonou,


Kossi Atchonouglo
Université de Lomé

Faculté Des Sciences

01B:P 1515 Lomé

Julien G. Adounkpe
West Africa Science Service Centre on Climate change and Adapted Land Use, WASCAL-Climate Change and Water Resources, University of Abomey Calavi

03 PO Box 526 Cotonou

Badabate Diwediga
Université de Lomé; UNEP-IEMP, Institute of Geographical Science and Natural Resources Research, The University of Chinese Academy of Science (CAS)

Laboratoire de Botanique et Ecologie Végétale, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé

Lomé 01 BP 1515, 

11A Datun Road, Beijing

Yao Lombo
Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique (ITRA)

Lomé 01BP 1163

Kossi E. Kpemoua
Institut Togolais de Recherche Agronomique (ITRA)

Lomé 01BP 1163

Komi Agboka
West Africa Science Service Centre on Climate change and Adapted Land Use, WASCAL-Climate Change and Disease Risk Management, University of Lomé

01 PO Box 1515 Lomé


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For citations:

Houteta D.K., Atchonouglo K., Adounkpe J.G., Diwediga B., Lombo Y., Kpemoua K.E., Agboka K. Changes In Land Use/ Cover And Water Balance Components During 1964–2010 Period In The Mono River Basin, Togo-Benin. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2022;15(4):171-180.

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