Advanced search

Waste Management Reform In Regions Of The Russian Federation: Implementation Issues On The Way To Sustainable Development

Full Text:


Disposal of production and consumption waste is a worldwide problem. Despite the experience of foreign countries, waste disposal practice in the Russian Federation remains at the level of the 1970s. The method of waste burial at landfill sites prevails, leading to a loss of secondary resources and the appearance of sites of accumulated environmental damage, which is connected with the lack of a clear legal framework for waste management activities. Analysis of waste accumulation standards for apartment buildings in 20 regions of the Russian Federation showed that the difference in accumulation standards can vary by 2.32 times (from 0.125 m3 in the Kursk region to 0.279 m3 in the Voronezh region). At the same time, the difference in the cost of solid waste removal services can be varied by 2.74 times from 51.55 rubles in the Altai Territory (on average in the region) to 141.45 rubles in the Tyumen region. At the same time, the share of the population with incomes below the subsistence minimum in different regions reaches 7 - 36%. This is largely due to the critically low recovery of secondary materials (about 7%). The capacity of landfills in the regions of the European part of Russia (where more than 2/3 of the population lives) is almost exhausted. Many landfills of solid waste are objects of accumulated environmental damage. The decision to introduce the «institute» of “regional environmental operators”, which was adopted at the level of the Russian Federation to implement the waste management reform, has not, yet had any positive effect. Given the constant deficit of the consolidated budgets of most regions, the high level of poverty and the lack of state support, the prospects for waste management reform indicate the need for additional efforts on the part of the state, business and society.


About the Authors

Andrei M. Dregulo
National research University «Higher School of Economics»; Saint-Petersburg Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Pechatnikov str. 16, 198099 Saint- Petersburg,

18 Korpusnaya str.,197110, Saint- Petersburg

Alexander M. Khodachek
National research University «Higher School of Economics»
Russian Federation

 Pechatnikov str. 16, 198099 Saint-Petersburg


1. Agiamoh R.G. (2020). From Bureaucracy to Market? Ongoing Reform and Performance Challenges of Solid Waste Administration in Moscow. Public Administration Issues, no 5, (Special Issue I, electronic edition), 149-170, DOI: 10.17323/1999-5431-2020-0-5-149-170. (in English)

2. Annual report of PPK «Russian Ecological Operator» 2019 year (2020). [online] Available at: [accessed 21.02.2021] (in Russian).

3. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No 8. (2019). «On the creation of a public law company for the formation of a comprehensive system for the management of solid municipal waste» Russian Environmental Operator» [online] Available at: URL: [ Accessed: 22.01.2021]

4. Decree N 1589-p of the Government of the Russian Federation (2017). On approval of the list of types of production and consumption waste, which include useful components, the disposal of which is prohibited [online] Available at: URL: [accessed 21.02.2021] (in Russian)

5. Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No 641 (2008). «On municipal solid waste management and modification» (amended on 15 December 2018) [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 27.02.2021] (in Russian).

6. Dregulo, A. M., Shapkin, V. M., & Kichko, A. A. (2021). Microbial analysis of sewage sludge shows closer monitoring needed for landfill waste. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Waste and Resource Management, 1–7. DOI: 10.1680/jwarm.21.00023

7. Dregulo A.M., Khodachek A.M. (2021). International and Russian practice in the field of containers and packaging waste management. Innovations, 2(268), 16-23, DOI: 10.26310/2071-3010.2021.268.2.003.

8. Directive 2004/35/EC (2004). of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union on environmental responsibility for the prevention of environmental damage and the elimination of its consequences. (with amendments and additions). from 23.04.2009). [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 27.02.2021].

9. Economic efficiency of elimination of accumulated environmental damage and restoration of degraded lands (2016). Monograph ed.: S.I. Nosov. Moscow: Prospekt, 208 (in Russian).

10. Fedotkina O., Gorbashko E., Vatolkina N. (2019). Circular Economy in Russia: Drivers and Barriers for Waste Management Development. Sustainability, 11(20), 5837, DOI 10.3390/su11205837

11. Ferronato N., Torretta V. (2019). Mismanagement of waste in developing countries: An overview of global challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), 1060, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16061060.

12. Federal Law No. 89-FZ (1999). «On Production and Consumption Waste» (version effective from June 14, 2020) [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 03.03.2021] (in Russian).

13. Federal Law No. 7-FZ (2002). «On Environmental Protection» System GARANT: [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 11.03.2021] (in Russian).

14. Federal State Statistics Service (2021). [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 13.03.2021] (in Russian).

15. Florin M. (2013). The impact of tourism on local waste management. Case study: Neamc County, Romania.Modern Environment and Sustainable Development, de Gruyter open, 7(1), 214-221.

16. Ignatieva I.A. (2017). Legal support for the elimination of accumulated harm to the environment, 2, 164-177. (in Russian)

17. Government of the Russian Federation Resolution No. 1727 (2019) On approval of the rules for granting subsidies from the federal budget in the form of a property contribution of the Russian Federation to the public law company for the formation of a comprehensive system for the management of solid municipal waste «Russian Environmental Operator» [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 21.02.2021] (in Russian).

18. Government of the Russian Federation Resolution No. 1815 (2019) «On Approval of the Rules for Sending to the Subjects of the Russian Federation and their Consideration of the Recommendations of the Russian Environmental operator when Approving or Adjusting the regional program in the field of waste management, including solid municipal waste, as well as when establishing or adjusting the standards for the accumulation of solid municipal waste» [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 21.02.2021] (in Russian).

19. Kotta B. (2020). What is happening, is happening? Access and distribution issues in the global North–South waste trade. Environmental Agreements 20, 255-269, DOI: 10.1007/s10784-020-09479-3.

20. Kholienchinova M., Nagyova L., Holota T. (2020). The impact of environmental responsibility on changing consumer behavior – a sustainable market in Slovakia. Economics and Sociology, 13, 84-96, DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2020/13-3/6.

21. Larionova N.S. (2020). The attitude of the residents of Arkhangelsk to the garbage reform (results of a sociological study). Russian Economic Bulletin, 3(1), 254-258 (in Russian).

22. Law on amendments to the Superfund and Reauthorization (SARA) [Electronic resource]: URL: [online] Available at: [Accessed 25.11.2020].

23. Lioy P.J., Burke T. (2010) Superfund: Is it safe to go home? Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology, 2, 113-114, DOI: 10.1038/jes.2009.69.

24. Order of the Committee on Tariffs of St. Petersburg No. 30-r of 14.04.2017 [online] Available at: [Accessed 21.02.2021] (in Russian).

25. Morozov V.V., Kurbatova Z.I., Kurbatova E.P. (2020). Problems of handling solid household waste and environmental disaster zones. Natural sciences, 1, 9-13 (in Russian).

26. National Priorities List (NPL) Sites – by Stat (2021). [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 25.05.2021].

27. Njoku P.O., Edokpayi J.N. & Odiyo J.O. (2019). Health and environmental risks to residents living near the landfill: A case study of the Tohoyandu landfill, Limpopo Province, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(12), 2125, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16122125.

28. Order of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation N 43/pr (2018) «On approval of the approximate form of a payment document for making payments for the maintenance and repair of residential premises and the provision of public services» (Registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on 14.05.2018 N 51074) [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 01.03.2021] (in Russian).

29. Potravny I.M., Novoselov A.L., Novoselova I.Yu. (2018). Development of methods of economic assessment of damage from environmental pollution and their practical application. Economic Science of modern Russia, 3(82), 35-48 (in Russian).

30. Ponomarev M.V. (2014). Trends and prospects for improving legislation in the field of waste management of production and consumption. Journal of Russian Law, 4, 22-32 (in Russian).

31. Report on the results of the expert-analytical event (2020). «Analysis of the implementation of measures that ensure the environmental safety of the Russian Federation, in terms of the elimination of objects of accumulated harm and the formation of a comprehensive system for the management of solid municipal waste». 2019 [online] Available at: URL: . (in Russian).

32. Resolution of the Regional Energy Commission of the Sverdlovsk Region of 30.08.2017 No. 77-PC (ed. of 28.06.2018) « On approval of standards for the accumulation of solid municipal waste in the territory of the Sverdlovsk region(with the exception of the municipal formation «city of Yekaterinburg»)» [online] Available at: URL: [accessed 11.03.2021] (in Russian).

33. Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan № 922 (2016). «About the approval of standards of accumulation of solid municipal waste in the Republic of Tatarstan» [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 11.03.2021] (in Russian).

34. Resolution of the RF Government N 354 (2011). «On the provision of public services to owners and users of rooms in apartment houses and homes» (along with «the Rules for the provision of utilities to owners and users of premises in apartment buildings and houses») (ed. by 02.03.2021) [online] Available at: URL: [Accessed 12.04.2021] (in Russian).

35. Ryabov G., Tugov A. (2020). Energy recovery of solid waste disposal in Russia, State of the Art and operation experience. Waste Disposal & Sustainable Energy, 2, 265-273, DOI: 10.1007/s42768-020-00050-z.

36. Skorupskaite K. and Yunevicius A. (2017). Waste management policy development in Lithuania using the Circular Economy model. Public Policy and Management, 16(1), 91-107, DOI: 10.5755/j01.ppaa.16.1.1801.

37. Suthar S., & Singh P. (2015). Solid waste generation and composition in different-sized families and socio-economic groups: a case study. Sustainable Cities and Society, 14, 56-63, DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2014.07.004.

38. Volkova A.V. (2018). Waste disposal market [online] Available at: URL: [Аccessed 01.03.2021] (in Russian).

39. Vypkhanova G.V., Zhavoronkova N.G. (2018). Legal regulation of environmental damage compensation in modern realities. Environmental law, 5, 5-12. (in Russian).

40. Waste of production and consumption (2009). [online] Available at: URL: [Аccessed 09.01.2021] (in Russian).

41. Wilke R. (2020) Cooperation between government and Agribusiness in Biogas Production: Balanced Development of Public Policy and Rural Sustainability Management, 19(2), 298-313, DOI: 10.13165/VPA-20-19-2-11.

42. World Bank Group (2014). Waste in Russia: garbage or valuable resource? Scenarios for developing the municipal solid waste management sector [online] Available at: URL: [Аccessed 31.09.2021].


For citations:

Dregulo A.M., Khodachek A.M. Waste Management Reform In Regions Of The Russian Federation: Implementation Issues On The Way To Sustainable Development. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2022;15(1):6-13.

Views: 572

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)