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Genetic Identification Of Ground Ice By Petrographic Method

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2021-063

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Abstract

The advantages and limitations of the petrography method and the relevance of its use for the study of natural ice are reviewed in the present work. The petrographic method of ground ice study is often used for solving paleogeographic issues. The petrofabric analysis of ground ice is not only useful for descriptive purposes but, like the study of cryostructures, helps to infer growth processes and conditions. Different types of natural ice have specific features that can help us to determine ice genesis. Surface ice, such as glacier ice is often presented by foliation formed by large crystals (50-60 mm); lake ice is characterised by the upper zone of small (6 mm x 3 mm) dendritic and equigranular crystals, which change with increasing depth to large (may exceed 200 mm) columnar and prismatic crystals; segregated ice is composed by crystals forming foliation. Ground ice, such as ice wedge is presented by vertical-band appearance and small crystals (2-2.5 mm); closed-cavity ice is often distinguished by radial-ray appearance produced by elongated ice crystals; injection ice is composed by anhedral crystals, showing the movement of water; snowbank ice is presented by a high concentration of circular bubbles and small (0.1-1 mm) equigranular crystals; icing is described by foliation and mostly columnar crystals. Identification of the origin of ground ice is a complicated task for geocryology because it is difficult to distinguish different types of ground ice based on only visual explorations. The simplest way to get an ice texture pattern is by using polarized light. Distinctions between genetic types of ground ice are not always made in studies, and that can produce erroneous inferences. Petrography studies of an ice object are helpful to clarify the data interpretation, e.g., of isotopic analyses. It is particularly relevant for heterogeneous ice wedges’ study.

About the Authors

Yana V. Tikhonravova
Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Yakutsk, 677010



Viktor V. Rogov
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Russian Federation

Moscow, 119991



Elena A. Slagoda
Earth Cryosphere Institute Tyumen Scientific Centre Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Tyumen, 625026



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Tikhonravova Y.V., Rogov V.V., Slagoda E.A. Genetic Identification Of Ground Ice By Petrographic Method. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2021;14(4):20-32. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2021-063

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