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MOUNTAIN NATURAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN RUSSIA

https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2012-5-2-51-67

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Abstract

High biodiversity and degree of endemism of mountain biota strengthen the mountain regions’ status for the territorial nature conservation. Analysis of the protected areas’ representativeness in various mountain regions of Russia shows some discrepancy between their quantity, square and regional biodiversity originality. The biggest divergences are marked for the Northern Caucasus. The main problems: small area of the protected territories and also cluster character of their spatial distribution, mostly in the high mountains are not supposed to conform with the highest values of the regional flora’s and fauna’s uniqueness, to compensate representativeness of the protected biota and, in anyway, to correspond with the purpose of nature protection frame—the protected territories ecologic network’s forming. The situation in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East seems to be better. The large areas of the protected territories are in general agreement with the high originality of the nature ecosystems. Nevertheless each concrete case needs analysis of the regional biota’s and ecosystems’ biodiversity distribution within the protected areas, including character and (or) unique elements of the regional biodiversity to be held. The development of the effectual territorial conservation of mountain regions needs differential approach. The creation of the large representative parcels of nature landscapes in the key-areas has the considerable meaning in the low-developed regions, difficult to access. And well-developed regions have the necessity of nature protected territories’ network development and the planning of the ecological frame’s forming. The territorial biodiversity conservation, including the system of federal, regional and local levels with protective conservation of the rare species has to be combined with ecosystem’s restoration, especially in the zones disturbed by erosion, recreation and military actions. Also it is necessary to develop the new types of the protected areas—ethnic-cultural territories of traditional mountain land-use. The biological resources’, ecosystems’ and ecological detriments’ evaluation is appropriate for the mountain biodiversity conservation. The latter is aimed to raise the effectiveness of the nature conservation activities and to prove the introduction of new mechanisms of their financing.

About the Authors

Arkady Tishkov

Russian Federation
Institute of Geography RAS, Staromonetny per., 29, 119017 Moscow, Russia


Elena Belonovskaya
Institute of Geography RAS, Staromonetny per., 29, 119017 Moscow, Russia
Russian Federation


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For citation:


Tishkov A., Belonovskaya E. MOUNTAIN NATURAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN RUSSIA. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2012;5(2):51-67. https://doi.org/10.24057/2071-9388-2012-5-2-51-67

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