Advanced search

The Dynamics Of Urbanizations And Concomitant Land Use Land Cover Transformations In Planned And Quasi-Planned Urban Settlements Of Pakistan

Full Text:


An attempt has been made to compare the salient characteristics of LULC transformations in planned (Faisalabad) and quasi-planned (Jhang) urban settlements of Pakistan. The Landsat-5 TM, Landsat 7 EMT+ and Landsat-8 images of 1989, 1999, 2009 and 2019, respectively, were retrieved and processed through google earth engine. The dynamics of LULC critically analyzed for the three periods 1989–1999, 1999–2009 and 2009–2019. The LULC analyzed in terms of quantity of change, gains, losses, and persistence of the study area examined carefully. The study mainly focuses on the LULC transformations of the previous 30 years (1989–2019). These 30 years witnessed massive physical expansions and LULC convergences. During this time interval, the built-up areas in these cities expanded, and productive agricultural land substantially squeezed. The spatialtemporal analysis of LULC changes calls for improvised strategies for the resilience of land and environmental resources. The direct beneficiaries of this research are resource managers and regional planners as well as others scientific community.

About the Authors

Haq M. Zaman
International Islamic University

GIS and Eco-Informatics Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science

H-10, Islamabad, 44000

Z. Saqib
International Islamic University

GIS and Eco-Informatics Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science

H-10, Islamabad, 44000

Atif S. Bokhari
International Islamic University; Government College

GIS and Eco-Informatics Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science; Department of Geography

 H-10, Islamabad, 44000

Asghar Mall, Rawalpindi, 46000

N. Akhtar
International Islamic University

GIS and Eco-Informatics Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science

H-10, Islamabad, 44000

S. Amir
International Islamic University

GIS and Eco-Informatics Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science

H-10, Islamabad, 44000


1. Adhikari K. and Hartemink A.E. (2016). Linking soils to ecosystem services-A global review. Geoderma, 262, 101-111.

2. Aguilar A.G., Ward P.M. and Smith Sr C. (2003). Globalization, regional development, and mega-city expansion in Latin America: analyzing Mexico City’s peri-urban hinterland. Cities, 20(1), 3-21.

3. Aher, J., Cilliers S. and Niemelä J. (2014). The concept of ecosystem services in adaptive urban planning and design: A framework for supporting innovation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 125, 254-259.

4. Ahmadizadeh S. (2014). Land use change detection using remote sensing and artificial neural network: Application to Birjand, Iran. Computational Ecology and Software, 4(4), 276.

5. Ali G., Ashraf A., Bashir M.K. and Cui S. (2017). Exploring environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in relation to green revolution: a case study of Pakistan. Environmental Science & Policy, 77, 166-171.

6. Ali M., Khan S.J., Aslam I. and Khan Z. (2011). Simulation of the impacts of land-use change on surface runoff of Lai Nullah Basin in Islamabad, Pakistan. Landscape and Urban Planning, 102(4), 271-279.

7. Ali S.M. and Malik R.N. (2010). Vegetation communities of urban open spaces: Green belts and parks in Islamabad city. Pak. J. Bot, 42(2), 1031-1039.

8. Amir S., Saqib Z., Khan M.I., Khan M.A., Bokhari S.A., Zaman-Ul-Haq M. and Majid A. (2020). Farmers’ perceptions and adaptation practices to climate change in rain-fed area: a case study from district Chakwal, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 57(2), 465-475.

9. Appiah, D. O., Forkuo E. K., Bugri J. T. and Apreku T. O. (2017). Geospatial Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Transitions from 1986–2014 in a Peri-Urban Ghana. Geosciences, 7(4), 125.

10. Arif G. and Hamid S. (2009). Urbanization, city growth and quality of life in Pakistan. European Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2), 196-215.

11. Atif S., Saqib Z., Ali A. and Zaman M. (2018a). The impacts of socio-economic factors on the perception of residents about urban vegetation: a comparative study of planned versus semi-planned cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(4), 4265-4287.

12. Atif S., Saqib Z., Ali A., Zaman M., Akhtar N., Fatima H., Atif M. and Farooqi S. (2018b). Identification of key-trends and evaluation of contemporary research regarding urban ecosystem services: a path towards socio-ecological sustainability of urban areas. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 16(3), 3545-3581.

13. Beauregard R. (2007). More Than Sector Theory: Homer Hoyt’s Contributions to Planning Knowledge. Journal of Planning History, 6(3), 248-271.

14. Bokhari S., Saqib Z., Ali A. and Zaman-Ul-Haq M. (2018). Perception of Residents about Urban Vegetation: A Comparative Study of Planned Versus Semi-Planned Cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography, 8(251), 2.

15. Briassoulis H. (2000). Analysis of land use change: theoretical and modeling approaches. Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University Morgantown, WV.

16. Brown L.A. and Holmes J. (1971). Intra-urban migrant lifelines: a spatial view. Demography, 8(1), 103-122.

17. Bukhari M. (1971). Growth and development of Lyallpurcity. Pakistan Geographical Review, 26(2), 1-15.

18. Butt A., Shabbir R., Ahmad S. S. and Aziz N. (2015). Land use change mapping and analysis using Remote Sensing and GIS: A case study of Simly watershed, Islamabad, Pakistan. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 18(2), 251-259.

19. Byerlee D. and Siddiq A. (1994). Has the green revolution been sustained? The quantitative impact of the seed-fertilizer revolution in Pakistan revisited. World Development, 22(9), 1345-1361.

20. Cai Y.-B., Li H.-M., Ye X.-Y. and Zhang H. (2016). Analyzing three-decadal patterns of land use/land cover change and regional ecosystem services at the landscape level: Case study of two coastal metropolitan regions, eastern china. Sustainability, 8(8), 773.

21. Chiesura A. and De Groot R. (2003). Critical natural capital: a socio-cultural perspective. Ecological Economics, 44(2), 219-231.

22. Cobbinah P.B., Erdiaw-Kwasie M.O. and Amoateng P. (2015a). Africa’s urbanisation: Implications for sustainable development. Cities, 47, 62-72.

23. Cobbinah P.B., Erdiaw-Kwasie M.O. and Amoateng P. (2015b). Rethinking sustainable development within the framework of poverty and urbanisation in developing countries. Environmental Development, 13, 18-32.

24. Cohen B. (2006). Urbanization in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability. Technology in society, 28(1-2), 63-80.

25. Danino M. (2008). New insights into Harappan town-planning, proportions, and units, with special reference to Dholavia. Man and Environment, 33(1), 66-79.

26. Davis J.L., Green J.D. and Reed A. (2009). Interdependence with the environment: Commitment, interconnectedness, and environmental behavior. Journal of environmental psychology, 29(2), 173-180.

27. De Groot R.S., Wilson M.A. and Boumans R.M. (2002). A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions, goods and services. Ecological economics, 41(3), 393-408.

28. De Molina M.G. and Toledo V.M. (2014). Social Metabolism at the Local Scale. The Social Metabolism. Springer.

29. Du X. and Huang Z. (2017). Ecological and environmental effects of land use change in rapid urbanization: The case of hangzhou, China. Ecological Indicators, 81243-251.

30. El-Kawy O.A., Rød J., Ismail H. and Suliman A. (2011). Land use and land cover change detection in the western Nile delta of Egypt using remote sensing data. Applied Geography, 31(2), 483-494.

31. Elmqvist T., Fragkias M., Goodness J., Güneralp B., Marcotullio P.J., Mcdonald R.I., Parnell S., Schewenius M., Sendstad M. and Seto K.C. (2013). Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services: challenges and opportunities: a global assessment, Springer.

32. Farah N., Khan I.A., Manzoor A. and Shahbaz B. (2016). Changing Land Ownership Patterns and Agricultural Activities in the Context of Urban Expansion in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Life & Social Sciences, 14(3).

33. Farah N., Zafar M.I. and Nawaz N. (2012). Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting Migration Behavior in District Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Life & Social Sciences, 10(1), 28-32.

34. Farooq M., Mateen A. and Cheema M. (2005). Determinants of migration in Punjab, Pakistan: A case study of Faisalabad metropolitan. Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences (Pakistan).

35. Ghalib A., Qadir A. and Ahmad S. (2017). Evaluation of developmental progress in some cities of punjab, pakistan, using urban sustainability indicators. Sustainability, 9(8), 1473.

36. Gilani H., Ahmad S., Qazi W.A., Abubakar S.M. and Khalid M. (2020). Monitoring of Urban Landscape Ecology Dynamics of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), Pakistan, Over Four Decades (1976–2016). Land, 9(4), 123.

37. Gill S.E., Handley J.F., Ennos A.R., Pauleit S., Theuray N. and Lindley S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: A template for landscape planning. Landscape and urban planning, 87(3), 210-222.

38. Goudie A.S. (2018). Human impact on the natural environment, John Wiley & Sons.

39. Grewal J. (2004). Historical geography of the Punjab. JPS, 11(1), 2.

40. Haaland C. and Van Den Bosch C.K. (2015). Challenges and strategies for urban green-space planning in cities undergoing densification: A review. Urban forestry & urban greening, 14(4), 760-771.

41. Hamad R., Balzter H. and Kolo K. (2017). Multi-criteria assessment of land cover dynamic changes in halgurd sakran national park (HSNP), kurdistan region of Iraq, using remote sensing and GIS. Land, 6(1), 18.

42. Hassan Z., Shabbir R., Ahmad S.S., Malik A. H., Aziz N., Butt A. and Erum S. (2016). Dynamics of land use and land cover change (LULCC) using geospatial techniques: a case study of Islamabad Pakistan. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1-11.

43. Hegazy I.R. and Kaloop M.R. (2015). Monitoring urban growth and land use change detection with GIS and remote sensing techniques in Daqahlia governorate Egypt. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 4(1), 117-124.

44. Heinke G.W. (1997). The challenge of urban growth and sustainable development for Asian cities in the 21st century. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 44(1-3), 155-171.

45. United Nations population estimates and projections of major Urban Agglomerations [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30-07-2020].

46. United Nations population estimates and projections of major Urban Agglomerations [Online]. Available: [Accessed 30-07-2020].

47. Iftikhar M.N., Ali S. and Sarzynski A. (2018). Community–government partnership for metered clean drinking water: A case study of Bhalwal, Pakistan. Climate Change in Cities. Springer.

48. J, C., Zhou X. and He Q. (2016). On the application of a concentric zone model (CZM) for classifying and extracting urban boundaries using night-time stable light data in Urumqi of Xinjiang, China. Remote sensing letters, 7(11), 1033-1042.

49. Kenoye, J.M. (1998). Ancient cities of the Indus valley civilization, Oxford University Press Karachi.

50. Kenoye, J.M., Price T.D. and Burton J.H. (2013). A new approach to tracking connections between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia: initial results of strontium isotope analyses from Harappa and Ur. Journal of Archaeological Science, 40(5), 2286-2297.

51. Khali, R.Z. (2017). InSAR coherence-based land cover classification of Okara, Pakistan. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science.

52. Kha, M.S. (1990). The impact of human activities on the status and distribution of amphibians in Pakistan. Hamadryad, 15(1), 21-24.

53. Kugelma, M. (2014). Pakistan’s Runaway Urbanization: What Can Be Done?, Asia Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

54. La Rosa D. and Wiesmann D. (2013). Land cover and impervious surface extraction using parametric and non-parametric algorithms from the open-source software R: An application to sustainable urban planning in Sicily. GIScience & remote sensing, 50(2), 231-250.

55. Lambin E.F., Rounsevell M. and Geist H. (2000). Are agricultural land-use models able to predict changes in land-use intensity? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 82(1-3), 321-331.

56. Larondelle, N., Frantzeskaki N. and Haase D. (2016). Mapping transition potential with stakeholder-and policy-driven scenarios in Rotterdam City. Ecological Indicators, 70, 630-643.

57. Lewis R.J. (2000). An introduction to classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Annual meeting of the society for academic emergency medicine in San Francisco, California.

58. Lopes N.V.M. and Farooq S. (2020). Smart City Governance Model for Pakistan. Smart Governance for Cities: Perspectives and Experiences. Springer.

59. Mayo S.M. (2012). Determination of urban settlement pattern for optimal regional development in Punjab. University of Engineering and Technology Lahore-Pakistan.

60. Mazhar, F. and Jamal T. (2011). Temporal population growth of Faisalabad city. Pakistan Journal of Science, 63(4), 249-251.

61. Metzger M., Rounsevell M., Acosta-Michlik L., Leemans R. and Schröter D. (2006). The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 114(1), 69-85.

62. Mondal M., Sharma N., Kappas M. and Garg P. (2015). Critical assessment of land use land cover dynamics using multi-temporal satellite images. Environments, 2(1), 61-90.

63. Naqvi H. R., Siddiqui L., Devi L. M. and Siddiqui M. A. (2014). Landscape transformation analysis employing compound interest formula in the Nun Nadi Watershed, India. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 17(2), 149-157.

64. Nisar A., Akram A. and Hussain H. (2013). Determinants of internal migration in Pakistan. The Journal of Commerce, 5(3), 32.

65. Omwoma R.M. (2016). A Land-tenure Based Model for Guiding and Controlling Development on Freehold Land in Urban Areas: Exploring Possibilities for Management of Spatial Quality in Kenya.

66. Ouyang Z., Fan P. and Chen J. (2016). Urban built-up areas in transitional economies of Southeast Asia: Spatial extent and dynamics. Remote Sensing, 8(10), 819.

67. Pimentel D. and Pimentel M. (2003). World population, food, natural resources, and survival. World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution, 59(3-4), 145-167.

68. Prasad A.M., Iverson L.R. and Liaw A. (2006). Newer classification and regression tree techniques: bagging and random forests for ecological prediction. Ecosystems, 9(2), 181-199.

69. Rawat J. and Kumar M. (2015). Monitoring land use/cover change using remote sensing and GIS techniques: A case study of Hawalbagh block, district Almora, Uttarakhand, India. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 18(1), 77-84.

70. Rimal B., Zhang L., Stork N., Sloan S. and Rijal S. (2018). Urban Expansion Occurred at the Expense of Agricultural Lands in the Tarai Region of Nepal from 1989 to 2016. Sustainability (2071-1050), 10(5).

71. Roberts B. (2013). Landscapes of settlement: prehistory to the present, Routledge.

72. Saarela S.-R. and Rinne J. (2016). Knowledge brokering and boundary work for ecosystem service indicators. An urban case study in Finland. Ecological Indicators, 6149-62.

73. Saeed Q., Bhatti I., Ashraf A. and Ahmad B. (2012). Physiochemical Analysis of Drinking Water from Different Urban Areas of Faisalabad. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS, 12(6), 183-186.

74. Safder Q. and Babar U. (2019). Assessment of Urbanization and Urban Sprawl Analysis through Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study of Faisalabad, Punjab Pakistan. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 9(4).

75. Schneider A., Mertes C., Tatem A., Tan B., Sulla-Menashe D., Graves S., Patel N., Horton J., Gaughan A. and Rollo J. (2015). A new urban landscape in East–Southeast Asia, 2000–2010. Environmental Research Letters, 10(3), 034002.

76. Seto K.C., Fragkias M., Güneralp B. and Reilly M. K. (2011). A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion. PloS one, 6(8), e23777.

77. Shah S.A.R., Naqvi S.A.A. and Anwar S. (2020). Exploring the linkage among energy intensity, carbon emission and urbanization in Pakistan: fresh evidence from ecological modernization and environment transition theories. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-23.

78. Shaheen A., Sheng J., Arshad S., Salam S. and Hafeez M. (2020). The Dynamic Linkage between Income, Energy Consumption, Urbanization and Carbon Emissions in Pakistan. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 29(1), 267-276.

79. Shakeel M., Khan A.U., Munir A.R. and Ahmed T. (2015). Spatial Variation in Urban Air Pollution: A GIS Based Approach in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Asian Journal of Natural & Applied Sciences, 4(3), 40-48.

80. Shalaby A. and Tateishi R. (2007). Remote sensing and GIS for mapping and monitoring land cover and land-use changes in the Northwestern coastal zone of Egypt. Applied Geography, 27(1), 28-41.

81. Shetty S. (2019). Analysis of Machine Learning Classifiers for LULC Classification on Google Earth Engine. University of Twente, Netherlands.

82. Simon J.L. (2019). The economics of population growth, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

83. Steedman E.B. (1882). Report on the Revised Settlement of the Jhang District of the Punjab, 1874-1880, W. Ball.

84. Stock J.L. and Chusid J.M. (2019). Urbanizing India’s frontier: Sriganganagar and canal-town planning on the Indus plains. Planning Perspectives, 1-24.

85. Sun Q., Xu J. and Chi X. (2010). A study of planning of commercial-net in quasi-urbanization area: taking luogang district in guangzhou as an example. Journal of South China Normal University (Natural Science Edition), (2), 27.

86. Thapa R.B. (2012). Monitoring landscape change in Kathmandu metropolitan region using multi-temporal satellite imagery. SPIE AsiaPacific Remote Sensing, 85281-85281.

87. Tian H., Banger K., Bo T. and Dadhwal V. K. (2014). History of land use in India during 1880–2010: Large-scale land transformations reconstructed from satellite data and historical archives. Global and Planetary Change, 12178-88.

88. Undp (2018). «Human Development Reports». The 2016 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI).

89. Valentine B., Kamenov G.D., Kenoyer J.M., Shinde V., Mushrif-Tripathy V., Otarola-Castillo E. and Krigbaum J. (2015). Evidence for patterns of selective urban migration in the Greater Indus Valley (2600-1900 BC): a lead and strontium isotope mortuary analysis. PLoS One, 10(4), e0123103.

90. Vasenev V.I., Yaroslavtsev A.M., Vasenev I.I., Demina S.A. and Dovltetyarova E.A. (2019). Land-use change in new Moscow: First outcomes after five years of urbanization. Geography, Environment, Sustainability, 12(4), 24-34.

91. Zhu Y. (2002). Beyond large-city-centred urbanisation: in situ transformationof rural areas in Fujian Province. Asia pacific viewpoint, 43(1), 9-22.

92. Zhu Y. (2004). Changing urbanization processes and in situ rural-urban transformation: reflections on China’s settlement definitions. New forms of urbanization: Beyond the urban-rural dichotomy. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

93. Zhu Y., Qi X., Shao H. and He K. (2007). The evolution of in situ urbanization and quasi-urban populations and their planning and environmental implications in China: Case studies from Quanzhou Municipality. Centre for Population and Development Research, Fujian Normal University, China.

For citation:

Zaman H.M., Saqib Z., Bokhari A.S., Akhtar N., Amir S. The Dynamics Of Urbanizations And Concomitant Land Use Land Cover Transformations In Planned And Quasi-Planned Urban Settlements Of Pakistan. GEOGRAPHY, ENVIRONMENT, SUSTAINABILITY. 2020;13(4):107-120.

Views: 227

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)