Advanced search


Full Text:


A mathematical three-dimensional model was developed by combining a physically complete block of circulation with modules of transport and transformation of detritus and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This z-coordinate model has a horizontal resolution of 5 × 5 km, 45 vertical levels, and a step of 5 minutes. The model considers gravitational sedimentation and decomposition of detritus, as well as its deposition and erosion on the bottom. To calculate the transport and transformation of PCBs in the Sea, the model uses three state variables: the concentration of PCBs in solution, in detritus, and in the upper layer of sediment. It also considers sorption, desorption, and reversible flows of PCBs at the bottom.
A 20-day model calculation was performed to simulate a potential accidental release of PCBs in the area of the Danube Delta in spring. The PCBs advection flows dominated and were comparable to the adsorption/desorption flows, while the diffusion fluxes were infinitesimal. Up to 20% of discharged PCBs were adsorbed by detritus in the first two days after the accident. There was a gradual accumulation of PCBs on the bottom; 16 days after the accident, 18% of the PCBs were bound to the sediments. The PCBs transport on detritus serves as a natural buffer mechanism that weakens the spread of PCBs in the sea. The paper analyzes the dynamics of PCB fields formed as a result of the application of an artificial active sorbent to minimize adverse effects on the ecosystem. An end-user oriented software application was developed; it allows forecasting the dynamics of potential releases of PCBs and planning counter-measures. A user-friendly interface allows tracking the field, visualizing the distribution of PCBs in the water column and sediments, and displaying the balance between dissolved and suspended phases.
Key words: multidisciplinary model, PCB transport, adsorption, desorption, sediments

About the Authors

Vitaly Ivanov

Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Shelf Hydrophysics, Director of Marine Hydrophysical Institute; Sevastopol, Ukraine; Kapitanskaya, 2, 99011

Andrii Bagaiev

Junior Scientist, Wave Theory Department, Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Ukraine

Sergey Demyshev

Leading Research Scientist, Wave Theory Department, Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Ukraine

Svitlana Lyubartseva

Senior Scientist, Department of Dynamics of the Oceanic Processes, Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Ukraine


1. Bagaiev, A.V. (2010) Improvement of the detritus parameterization for ecological modeling

2. the Danube Mouth zone, Ecological safety of coastal and shelf zones and comprehensive

3. use of shelf resources, 22, 274–280, (in Russian).

4. Bagaiev, A.V. and Lyubartseva, S.P. (2011) Model estimation of the active sorbent efficiency

5. during the accident spill of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Danube Mouth zone,

6. Ecological safety of coastal and shelf zones and comprehensive use of shelf resources,

7. (2), 325–336, (In Russian).

8. Bakan, G. and Ariman, S. (2004) Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments along the

9. coast of mid-Black Sea region of Turkey, Mar. Pol. Bul., 48, 1031–1039.

10. Belokopytov, V.N. (2004) Thermohaline and hydrologic-and-acoustic structure of the Black

11. sea water, Candidate’s Dissertation in Geography, MHI NANU, Sevastopol, (in Russian).

12. Burns, K. and Villeneuve, J.-P. (1983) Biogeochemical processes affecting the distribution

13. and vertical transport hydrocarbon residues in the coastal Mediterranean, Geochimica et

14. Cosmochimica Acta, 47, 995–1006.

15. Delle Site, A. (2001) Factors affecting sorption of organic compounds in natural sorbent/

16. water systems and sorption coefficients for selected pollutants. A review, J. Phys. Chem.

17. Ref. Data, 30, 187–425.

18. Demyshev, S. G. and Korotaev, G. K. (1992) Numerical energy-balanced model of

19. baroclinic currents with uneven bottom on the C grid. Numerical models and the

20. results of the calibration simulations in the Atlantic Ocean, INM RAS, Moscow,

21. (in Russian).

22. Dioxins and Health (1994) (Ed. Schecter, A.), N.Y., Plenum Press.

23. Dove, A. and Hill, B. (2008) Update of PCB monitoring information in the Great Lakes,

24. Water quality monitoring and surveillance. BTS – PCB workgroup,

25. bns/reports/stakejun2008/PCB/PCBs_BTS_08.pdf

26. Fillmann, G., Readman, J. et al. (2002) Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments

27. from Black Sea, Mar. Pol. Bul., 44, 122–133.

28. Ivanov, V.A., Bagaiev, A.V. et. al. (2012) Three-dimensional model of polychlorinated biphenyl

29. transport on the Black Sea north-western shelf, Dopovidi NANU, 4, 94–99, (in Russian).

30. Ivanov, V.A. and Belokopytov, V.N. (2011) Oceanography of the Black Sea, MHI NANU,

31. Sevastopol, (in Russian).

32. Ivanov, V.A. and Fomin, V.V. (2008) Mathematical modeling of dynamic processes in the

33. sea–land zone, MHI NANU, Sevastopol, (in Russian).

34. Ivanov, V.A., Lyubartseva, S.P. et. al. (1999) Modeling the Black Sea shelf ecosystem of the

35. Danube Mouth zone, Marine Hydrophysical Journal, No. 6, 15–29, (in Russian).

36. Jonsson, A. and Carman, R. (2000) Distribution of PCBs in sediment from different bottom

37. types and water depths in Stockholm Archipelago, Baltic Sea, AMBIO, 29, 277–281.

38. Jonsson, A., Gustaffson, G. et. al. (2003) A global accounting of PCBs in the continental

39. shelf sediments, Environ. Sci. Tech., 37, 245–255.

40. Knysh, V.V., Demyshev, S.G. et. al. (2002) A procedure of reconstruction of the climatic

41. seasonal circulation in the Black Sea based on the assimilation of hydrological data in the

42. model, Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 88–103.

43. Lebedev, V.I. (1964) Difference analogues of orthogonal expansions, fundamental differential

44. operators, and basic initial boundary value problems of mathematical physics, Zh.

45. Vych. Mat. Mat. Fiz., 4, 449–465, (in Russian).

46. Lyubartseva, S.P., Ivanov, V.A. et. al. (2012) Three-dimensional numerical model of polychlorobiphenyls

47. dynamics in the Black Sea, Rus. J. Num. Anal. Math. Mod., 27, 53–68.

48. Maldonado, C., Bayona, M. et. al. (1999) Sources, distribution, and water column processes

49. of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwestern Black Sea water,

50. Envir. Sci. Tech., 33, 2693–2702.

51. Margvelashvili, N.Yu. (1999) Mathematical modeling the three dimensional fields of radionuclides

52. in estuaries and inland basins, Candidate’s Dissertation in Geophysics, MHI

53. NANU, Sevastopol, (in Russian).

54. Orlova, I.G. (1994) Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Black Sea ecosystem. Investigation of

55. the Black Sea ecosystem, IREN-POLYGRAPH, Odessa, (in Russian).

56. Pacanowski, R.C. and Philander, S.G.H. (1981) Parametrization of vertical mixing in numerical

57. models of the tropical ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 1442–1451.

58. Panin, N. and Jipa, D. (1998) Danube river sediment input and its interaction with the

59. north-western Black Sea: results of EROS-2000 and EROS-21 projects, GeoEcoMarina, 3,

60. –35.

61. Tanabe, S., Madhusree, B. et al., (1997) Persistent organochlorine residues in harbour porpoise

62. (Phocoena phocoena) from the Black Sea, Mar. Pol. Bul., 34, 338–347.

63. Zherko, N.V., Egorov, V.N. et. al. (2000) Organochlorine compounds in the north-western

64. part of the Black Sea, Ecol. Mor., No. 51, 88–90, (in Russian).


For citations:


Views: 518

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2071-9388 (Print)
ISSN 2542-1565 (Online)